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Renewable Energy FAQ(more details) 


Technologies for Stationary Energy (electricity generation)


In this section:

In comparing ways of generating electricity, there are several considerations:

  • Cost per unit generated

This is a combination of the ongoing cost of operating the plant, the "opportunity cost" of the land dedicated to it, the capital cost of building it in the first place, and the transmission costs and losses. 

The construction cost has to be amortised over the expected lifetime output.  This involves several assumptions, so different authors arrive at different conclusions.  This matters a lot where almost all the cost is capital expenditure, such as wind and solar.  Of course, construction cost is not a problem for existing coal-fired power stations, but new coal-fired power stations are planned too, so comparisons made here are with new coal.

A standard measure is "levelised cost".  This amortizes the capital cost over the lifetime of the plant, adds a percentage p.a. return expected by investors (the "discount rate") and the production cost (fuel and maintenance) to give a cost per unit of electricity.  The result therefore depends on the rate of return required.  Extreme examples are solar and gas.  Gas has a very high fuel cost while solar (both PV and thermal) have very high construction costs.  Wind is or is not competitive with gas within the usual range of values assumed.

For a simplified calculation, suppose solar PV is down to $1/W to install.   If each 1W installed generates an average of 3Wh a day, it provides 1kWh in about a year.  If lifetime amortised cost plus interest amounts to 10% pa, it's producing at 10c/kWh.

[Some argue that the construction cost for renewables shouldn't matter: if it avoids emissions then it's worth it.  But construction might be expensive precisely because that uses a lot of energy, and that's being costed at today's prices.  It could even happen that a "renewable" technology plant would cost more energy to make than it will deliver in its entire life.]

Where the technology is not yet mature, equipment costs can be expected to come down as the technology spreads.  This is why government investment is necessary to achieve a rapid transition.  Private sector investment focuses on the short term.

May 2011: Costs coming down even faster than expected

Transmission cost can be high because the source of energy is often a long way from the cities.  Coal-fired power has the advantage here that distribution already exists in coal mining areas, and other industries have grown up around them.

Where a technology has high pollution cost, this should be factored in too.  This too often ends up being borne by the taxpayer.  Consider, e.g., the medical expenses of miners.  In 2009 the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences & Engineering estimated $40-50/MWh on top of the wholesale price of $40MWh (including climate change).  In the US, the NRC estimates $US32/MWh excluding climate change.  More evidence of the health consequences of fossil fuels continues to emerge.

April 2011: Particles disrupt immune system

March 2012: Call for more independent testing in coal regions

In NSW, the coal industry also receives about $1bn./year in direct and indirect subsidies.

Such indirect costs have not been included in the comparisons below.

Dec 2010: Georgia Inst of Tech & Duke Uni; Supporting renewables now will reduce power costs in 2030:

I.e., can it guarantee to meet a predicted demand?  At one extreme, wind and solar PV are intermittent; at the other, hydro can be used to store energy from other sources (by pumping water back up).  In between, an energy source may be reliable but inflexible, - i.e. it's most efficient if you run it at constant output - or reliable and flexible ("dispatchable") but with no ability to absorb and store energy from other sources.  This issue would be solved by large, cheap, efficient  batteries, but there is no prospect of that any time soon.

In the grid, cheap unreliable energy sources can be mixed with flexible sources and storage to give the best overall system.

There is also an important distinction between intermittent and unpredictable. Unpredictability is what really hurts grids.  If supply can be predicted even fifteen minutes in advance then the grid is much more manageable.  Increasingly, wind and solar can be predicted hours in advance.  Conversely, conventional large coal plant can fail with little warning.

Dec 2013How flexible + variable can replace baseload + peaking

Mar 2014: US grid could be 30% solar+wind with no reliability concern

  • Environment

Any technology can have negative impacts on the environment, even if it is just aesthetic.  Some may have much reduced GHG output, but not zero. 

Any technology which involves heat needs a way to get rid of the heat.  The most efficient is to use water, but that may be scarce, so air must sometimes be used instead.

  • Scale and centralisation

Some technologies are only practical as large centralised plant, while others can be built at any scale.  Small scale has the advantage that it can be added to as needed, instead of having to guess the demand for decades in advance, and can be spread around the grid, reducing distribution losses.

(Reduced distribution loss is a key justification for a feed-in tariff, whereby suburban households may be paid a higher rate for electricity they feed into the grid than they pay for what they draw from the grid.)

  • Timeliness
I.e., how quickly can capacity be expanded?  Given the urgency of climate change, we cannot wait 30 years for the ideal solution.
  • Grid stability

Our grid is based on AC.  Generators feeding into it must match the voltage cycle they produce to that of the grid, or they will be fighting each other.

When part of a grid fails, or when demand exceeds supply, the grid voltage and frequency can become erratic.   Conventional turbines (coal, gas, hydro) have high inertia ("synchronicity") in their rotors.  This means they only change frequency slowly, so although they try to adapt to the grid frequency they also serve to stop it changing quickly.

Solar PV and wind turbines have little or no natural inertia, but it can be provided artificially with suitable electronics.  As of the 2017 Finkel report, there is no requirement for them to do so, and since it costs a little extra in construction, they don't.  In this respect, our system rules lag behind those of Europe and the US.

Jun 2017: Why we need inertia, and how little 

  • Long term viability

Fossil fuels, and that includes nuclear, are by definition a finite resource.  To provide the whole world's electricity at current demand from known reserves and current technology, coal might last 200 years, nuclear 20, gas 100.  (It's hard to be exact because progressively more expensive sources can be pressed into service.)  There could easily be 10 times the known reserves of uranium, so nuclear could stretch to 200 years, longer if thorium is also used.  Fourth generation nuclear fission could last for thousands of years, and nuclear fusion for millions.

But as they say, the Stone Age didn't end for lack of stones.


July 2012: Virtual plant aggregates intermittent sources to improve reliability

Jan 2013: Global Atlas of renewable energy potential

Mar 2013: Stanford: how NY could be 100% renewable energy by 2030

Aug 2013: US NREL compares land area requirements

July 2014: Four Corners  "Power to the People"

Nov 2016: Finnish researchers model worldwide 100% renewable power 


In this section

Solar Thermal with storage
Solar PV
Combined Heat and Power
Carbon Capture + Storage ("Clean coal")
Carbon Capture with Algae, etc.
Conventional Coal
Heat-based Generation
Hybrid generation
Energy Storage

Dec 2012: Highs, lows and prospects for solar in Australia

Six important facts about renewable energy

 Mar 2014: Where Oz power comes from and how great the emissions - CER

Mar 2014: Novel idea: energy from Earth's nocturnal IR emissions

Nov 2014: European Innovations


Electricity from wind has been around for 120 years, with commercial generation since 1941.  Current costs go as low as 6 to 7 cents/kWh for the most suitable sites, making it about the same as new coal-fired, and can be expected to fall a little as the technology evolves.  Its main disadvantage is unpredictability, but mixed with other technologies could provide 20% of Australia's needs.

A looming technology is high-altitude windpower, which it's claimed would provide electricity at 2 to 5 cents/kWh.

At the low end, domestic wind turbines don't get enough wind, but other technologies might harness low wind speeds more effectively:

In September 2009, the Danish think tank CEPOS released a report critical of Denmark's commitments to windpower.  Two main conclusions have been widely quoted by groups sceptical of renewable energy: (1) That most of Denmark's wind power is exported to other "Nord Pool" countries (hence, it would not be practical for those other countries to adopt the same level of windpower); and (2) that the cost of subsidising the windpower was responsible for Denmark's very high electricity prices.

Other researchers have found major errors in the CEPOS report.  E.g. shows both of these charges to be without foundation.


June 2010: Turbine noise no health threat

Oct 2010: Offshore wind more beneficial than offshore oil

Nov 2010: Minimising harm to bats:

Dec 2010:

North Seas Countries sign Memorandum of Understanding on joint grid:

Windfarms help crops nearby:

Adaptive aderodynamics to improve turbine efficiency:

Jan 2011: Study on optimal windfarm layout; Johns Hopkins:

Feb 2011: Torque vectoring gears simplify grid feed-in; Tech Uni Munich:

March 2011: New insight into bird collisions; Birmigham Uni:

March 2011: Wind may be too limited a resource; Max Planck Institute: ... April 2011: but read the blog comments by cphoenix at

March 2011: Manufacturers plan 7MW and 10MW turbines:

May 2011: Global Warming won't diminish wind resource; Indiana Uni:

May 2011: Genetic algorithm to optimise turbine placement; Uni of Adelaide:

May 2011: Does noise from offshore turbines harm fish?  Uni of Maryland:

May 2011: Kite power to reach higher altitude winds

June 2011: Project to reduce turbine noise; Uni of Adelaide:

June 2011: Eddies harnessed for low-power application:

June 2011: Trend towards larger turbines

July 2011: Turbine placement can make a tenfold difference in output; Caltech:

Aug 2011: Counter-rotating vertical-axis turbines feed off each other; Caltech:

Aug 2011: Blades of Polyurethane and Carbon nanotubes; Case Western Reserve:

Sep 2011: "Wind lens" triples power for same size; Kyushu Uni:

Sep 2011:  Wind at 10m height increasing in Australia; CSIRO:

Oct 2011: Analysis of Australian anti-wind lobby:

Oct 2011:  Extendable blades would adapt to conditions:

Dec 2011: Jetstream winds not such a great resource as thought; Max Planck Institute:

Dec 2011: Matthew Wright interview & phone in on MTR

Feb 2012: Half of turbines off Texan shore would be downed by hurricanes in 20 years

May 2012: $24/MWh LCOE claimed for 'gyroplane' turbine flying at 4km

June 2012: 14 myths about wind farms

June 2012: For wind turbines, bigger means greener

June 2012: Offshore wind peaks in the evening, complementing solar

July 2012: Lower cost wind augmentation

July 2012: Design advances have raised typical capacity factor from 30% to 50%

July 2012: Vertical axis turbines have advantages for offshore

Aug 2012: Guyed turbines cheaper for offshore

Sep 2012: Advances in Vertical Axis Turbines

Oct 2012: Portable 50kW turbine

Oct 2012: Siemens tests 154m rotor

Nov 2012: Adelaide team to study generation of low frequency noise in turbines

Dec 2012: Taming tornado power

Jan 2013: UK finds turbines wearing out sooner than expected

Jan 2013: EU project to develop superconducting generators

Jan 2013: 80-100m blades to be developed for offshore 8-10MW turbines 

Jan 2013: Fe-based superconducting wires 

Feb 2013: Networking turbines for smooth, predictable power

Feb 2013: Have wind farm capacities been overestimated?

Feb 2013: 13m waves can snap offshore turbines

Mar 2013: Oz wind farm output matching demand

Apr 2013: GE's "brilliant" turbine gets 15% more output

Apr 2013: Large scale onshore wind farms may be limited to 1W/m2 available power

Apr 2013: NHMRC rejects the Sarah Laurie syndrome

June 2013: Only 0.1% fossil fuel back-up needed for UK wind

June 2013: GE adds to its Brilliant range

July 2013: "Auralisation" tool lets you hear what a wind farm will sound like

Aug 2013: Supercomputer to help plan wind farms

Aug 2013: Spare wind power makes ammonia for fertiliser

Aug 2013: No complaints in Alberta

Aug 2013: Wind farms don't dent property values in US

Aug 2013: North Sea wind farm gets 320kV 800MW HVDC converter

Oct 2013: Advanced software boosts output 5%

Nov 2013: Smarter spacing boosts offshore wind output by a third.

Nov 2013: US turbines killed over 600,000 bats in 2012

Nov 2013US wind farm fined for eagle deaths ... but coal and nuclear kill more birds per kWh

Nov 2013: Floating turbines may be cheaper than seafloor-mounted

Dec 2013: Off-shore turbines could protect against cyclones

Dec 2013: Raft of innovations in off-shore turbines

Jan 2014: US NREL finds wind farms increase grid stability

Jan 2014: 8MW prototype enters test

Feb 2014:

$2m fund to raise hub heights to 120m, adding 1800GW potential in US

Wind turbines outliving gas turbines

Large off-shore arrays could slow hurricanes, quell storm surges

SA wind farms near 50% capacity factor

Vestas'  140m tower for low wind sites

April 2014: GE claims 50% capacity factor, 98% availability

May 2014: Preventing lightning damage

June 2014: Wind turbines recover invested energy in months 

July 2014:

Ducted turbines a con

Wind Power expo showcases new advances

Test of 10MW offshore turbine planned

Aug 2014: UK's first 6MW wind turbine to be erected in North Sea

Oct 2014: Why wind is both cheaper and more reliable than gas

Nov 2014: Purple blades safer for wildlife

Nov 2014: Australian gearless superconducting generator to slash costs

Dec 2014: Honda plant to be wind powered

Dec 2014: 99% seabirds avoid wind farms

Jan 2015: Parasitic load; 0.1% for wind turbines, 2%-10% for coal-fired

Feb 2015: Study finds wind alone could keep US grid going

Feb 2015: 2.4GW offshore wind farm for Yorkshire's Dogger Bank

Apr 2015:

Siemens rates its turbines environmentally sound

Gearboxless turbines for reliable offshore arrays

May 2015:

Bladeless Vortex power pole waggles in the wind  [be sceptical - Ed]

Turbine capacity factors predicted to reach 60%

June 2015:

Technology advances make it worth replacing older turbines

Central nacelle diverts wind to where it creates more torque

Owl feathers inspire quieter turbine blades

July 2015:

Wide area data speeds wind site assessment

Aug 2015:

No gearbox, modular design, makes 135m high turbine feasible

Ultrasonics track state of bearings

Sep 2015

Taller towers and careful siting greatly reduce bird deaths

Super-sized wind farms would suffer from tamer winds

Siemens developing turbines over 10MW

Nov 2015

Old turbines to be replaced by more raptor-friendly models

Cheaper offshore turbine developed

Jan 2016 200m blades, towers that flex like palms, for 50MW offshore turbines 

Feb 2016

1.2GW offshore wind farm for UK [at UKP147/MWh?! - Ed] 
Hub heights to 170m envisioned
75% reduction in concrete use cuts embedded carbon, costs, construction time
Qld company reinforces concrete with recycled plastic

Jul 2016 
How pooling wind power across states smooths supply
12-rotor trial in Denmark
Offshore wind at 10c/kWh in Netherlands

Oct 2016
8c/kWh claimed for kite power 
Birds affected in wider region
New, lighter materials for giant offshore wind blades

Nov 2016:
UK turbines killing 1000s of bats a year 
Owl feathers show how to cut turbine noise 10dB

Dec 2016:
Turbines can benefit crops below 
Huge 8MW turbines online in North Sea

Feb 2017:
200m high, 9MW Danish turbine breaks record with 216MWh in a day 
Insect wings inspire 35% efficiency improvement

Mar 2017: AWEA confident bat mortality will decline 

Apr 2017Airborne wind power test for Ireland 

Jun 2017: At 187m tall, Vestas' 9.5MW turbine matches AMP building

Aug 2017: Night vision to help offshore wind farm siting avoid birds and bats 

Feb 2018: Bird deaths dwarfed by those from coal, nuclear, power lines... 

Feb 2018: 2018 wind power outlook

Mar 2018: GE unveils 12MW turbine for offshore - [2/3 height of Centrepoint - Ed]
Mar 2018:
AI to detect and deter approaching birds

Apr 2018: 8.8MW 190m tall turbine installed off Scotland 

July 2018: 9.5MW turbine passes certification 

Oct 2018: Tassie turbines to shut down at approaching Eagle 
Oct 2018: Vestas' 187m tall 10MW offshore turbine 

May 2019: Wind turbines with solar panels on masts 

Jul 2019: Turbine twist avoids shielding downstream fellows
Jul 2019: GE's 12MW offshore wind nacelle 

Solar Thermal (preferably with storage)

This concentrates the sun's rays and uses the heat as the source of power. 

Without storage, the heat turns water to supercritical steam and drives a conventional turbine.  But that competes head-to-head with PV, and, being based more on conventional technology, is not enjoying the same dramatic decline in costs. 

More interestingly, the heat can be stored and used later, when the sun is no longer shining.  The commonest storage medium today is molten salt, at around 500C.  This is not table salt, but salts such as sodium and potassium nitrate (fertiliser).  As needed, this is then used to generate steam to drive a turbine.  Adequate salt storage and diverse sites in the grid make it suitable not just as baseload but as a flexible source to be mixed with unpredictable sources such as wind.

There are three main versions: linear Fresnel, parabolic trough and power tower.  Linear Fresnel and parabolic trough only differ in the shape of the mirrors.  Each concentrates the sun onto a pipe that runs along the focal points of the mirrors.   In power tower arrays, all the mirrors concentrate the sun onto a receiver at the top of a single tower.  Parabolic troughs have been expensive to construct.  A new aluminium design helps, but still probably more expensive than power tower.

Current generation cost is around 15 cents/kWh, but is expected to fall to the same or less than (new) coal.

See also Heat-based Generation

June 2010: EU Sees Solar Power Imported From Sahara In 5 Years:

Nov 2010: Economically competitive within a decade; Boston Consulting Group

Jan 2011: Sahara project combines CST with reafforestation, desalination and biofuel:

May 2011: Summary of CST state of play:

May 2011: eSolar video on high-precision tracking

July 2011: Spain's Gemasolar is first 24 x 7 plant in production

Nov 2011: Californian contracts revised to add molten salt storage

Jan 2012: Novel materials could be cheaper than molten salts

Jan 2012: Sunflower seedhead layout cuts land area 20%

Apr 2012: Molten glass could handle 700oC, reach 50% efficiency

Sep 2012: Modular system developed

Nov 2012: Concrete thermocline for much cheaper heat storage

Nov 2012: Nanoparticles make solar steam engine

Dec 2012: 120MW Israeli plant to come online in 2017

Mar 2013: Ivanpah (377MW, no storage) achieves "first flux"

Mar 2013: Another 2 x 250MW power towers for California

Apr 2013: 500MW Calif project shelved over environmental concerns

Apr 2013: Tonopah, Nevada, nears completion

July 2013: Adding storage gains ground to compete with cheaper PV

July 2013: 'Perfect' mirrors could boost output of concentrating solar technologies

Sep 2013: 377MW Ivanpah comes online

Oct 2013: Solana, AZ: Parabolic trough with 6 hours' storage at only $7/W

Oct 2013: Gemasolar celebrates 2 years' operation with 36 day run of full power

Nov 2013: US solar thermal to reach 1GW soon

Jan 2014: 110MW power tower with 17.5 hours storage for Chile

Feb 2014: Study finds optimal storage between 6 and 9 hours [Depends on context, surely? - Ed]

Feb 2014Crescent Dunes (Nevada, 110MW, 10 hours salt storage, $7/W) starts commissioning

Feb 2014: Ivanpah (California, 392MW, no storage, $5.6/W) officially operational

May 2014: Chile grants environmental approval for 110MW plant with 18 hours storage

May 2014: Graphite heat storage  plant, Ozzie design, to be built in Cyprus

May 2014WA region to get first CSP with molten salt storage in Oz

June 2014: CSIRO lifts steam temperature to 570C

June 2014: 900C claimed for Calcium-based heat store 

June 2014: Linear Fresnel mirrors with molten salt as the working fluid

June 2014: Metal hydride and thermochemical alternatives to molten salt storage

July 2014Latent heat storage (PCM) aims for $15/kWh-thermal [how that translates into $/kWh-electric will depend on transition temperature - ed]

July 2014: Abengoa hopes to sign iron ore miner for plant with 6 hours' storage

Aug 2014: Graphite sponge generates steam at low solar concentration

Oct 2014: Saharan power tower with link to Europe proposed

Oct 2014: Nano material captures 90% of sunlight as heat, stable at 700C

Jan 2015: S. African 100MW plant  to cost $8/W, 14c/kWh

Jan 2015: Underground 500oC steam storage

Mar 2015: Supercritical CO2 may replace steam in small, efficient turbine

Apr 2015Changed algorithm prevents bird flaming

May 2015: Solar thermal Stirling engine (no storage) trialled in Kalahari 

May 2015: Common sand as heat reservoir

May 2015: CSP blossoms in Chile and Morocco from $6/W

July 2015: Testing up to 700C to start on hot sand storage

Aug 2015: Oman 1GW CSP at only 60c/Wp

Aug 2015: 260 MW CSP with storage for Chile

Aug 2015: Sth African team develops cheaper heliostats

Sep 2015: Ivanpah (377MW, no storage) power ramp up tracking  expectation

Nov 2015: SrCO3 decomposition offers denser storage, higher temperatures

Nov 2015: Latent heat of melting Silicon

Jan 2016UAE desert sand can store solar energy up to 1000°C

Feb 2016: First 160MW of Moroccan CSP on grid ...
Feb 2016: ... ACWA CEO predicts $80/MWh for solar thermal + PV combo
Feb 2016: Hybrid CSP+Diesel/gas and Stirling cycle - study
Feb 2016: 110MW 24 hour solar online in Nevada

May 2016: Solar Reserve to build 1GW solar thermal in China

July 2016Solar thermal stored at 1300C permits thermal photovoltaic (TPV) power

Aug 2016: ANU's  solar thermal capture nears 99%

Sep 2016: 6000 annual bird deaths at Ivanpah
Sep 2016: Salts with graphite foam conduct heat better, allowing use of phase change

Jan 2017: 120MW plant in the Negev 

Feb 2017: Scale model shows how vertical axis turbine clusters cooperate 

Mar 2017: 450MW solar thermal with 13h storage for Chile 

May 2017: As tweak on coal power station, CSP cuts a third of emissions 

Jun 2017: Thermochemical heat storage easier to handle 

Aug 2017: Tunisia as power source for southern Europe 

Oct 2017: Convoluted receivers harness 20% more power in small-medium plant 

Dec 2017: Ganged heliostats to cut cost by 30% 

Jan 2018: At 1500°C solar thermal can make H2 with up to 60% efficiency 

Jun 2018: Molten Aluminium with Stirling cycle allows CSP as small as 500kW

Oct 2018: Moroccan 150MWx7.5h molten salt plant enters final testing 
Oct 2018: Heat-tolerant material makes solar thermal more efficient 

Dec 2018: Aluminium Nitride helps ceramic tank withstand salt 

Feb 2020: Etched metal captures more heat 


 Solar Photovoltaic (PV)

This turns light directly into electricity, avoiding the inefficiencies of a heat stage and the need for water as a coolant.  That also makes it viable for domestic scale generation.  There is a range of technologies with widely differing costs, efficiencies, and applications.  The fall in price of some has been dramatic across decades.

Concentrated PV (CPV) uses mirrors to concentrate the sunlight onto a relatively small area of very efficient, and expensive, solar cells.

There are many competing solar cell technologies.  Some are very efficient, but expensive, while others quite inefficient but dirt cheap.  Some come in the form of thin films which can be applied to existing surfaces.  Some use only the infrared bands, allowing visible light through, so can be used on windows.  Others attempt to use as much of the sun's bandwidth as possible.  Advances in each technology play leapfrog.

Feb 2010:

Silicon Wire Arrays; Caltech:

March 2010:

Plant protein; Tel Aviv:

Algal electrons; Stanford:

April 2010:

CoS cathode, organic redox electrolyte; Quebec:

Graphene; Indiana:

Nanowires; summary:

PbS; PennState:

Continuous flow thin film; Oregon:

May 2010:

Purple Bacteria; Miami:

Printable plastic strip cells; CSIRO:

Plastic fibre cells; Wake Forest:

Multilayer fabrication of thin film GaAs; University of Illinois:

June 2010:

Grätzel cells take Millennium Prize; Lausanne:ätzel

Quantum dots could double PV efficiency; University of Texas:

Longer life unsealed plastic solar cell; University of Alberta and the National Institute for Nanotechnology:

August 2010:

Photon enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) uses both heat and light; Stanford:

Embedding Selenium in Zinc Oxide increases capture; Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Ca.:

Nickel can replace gold in colloidal quantum dot solar cell contacts; University of Toronto:

Self-assembled monolayer helps charge dissociation in conjugated polymers; University of Cambridge:

Chlorophyll in stromatolites captures infrared; University of Sydney:

September 2010:

Carbon nanotubes concentrate solar energy; MIT:

Detergent renews solar cells; MIT:

Solar cells as continuous flexible sheets; Binghamton University:

Artifical leaf; NCSU:

Ultra-thin solar cells cheaper, more efficient; Stanford:

October 2010:

Quantum dots give 2 electrons per photon; University of Wyoming:

nanocrystals of copper indium diselenide in sprayable ink; University of Texas:

"excitons" can travel far further in organic solar cells than thought; Rutgers:

November 2010:

Sahara Solar Breeder Project: Sun and sand make silicon and power; Japanese/Algerian initiative:

December 2010:

Capturing infrared too doubles power and even works at night; US DoE, National Lab, Idaho Falls:

January 2011:

Carbon nanotubes repair degraded dyes; Purdue Uni:

Orienting panels to target peak load; UC San Diego:

Antireflective coating improves light capture; Nagaoka University of Technology:

Bloomberg recommends PV for domestic power in Persian Gulf:

February 2011:

World annual growth of PV doubled to 16GW in 2010:

Organic layer can triple output of quantum dot solar cells; Stanford:

March 2011:

Amorphous Si deposition could be 10 times faster;  Tech Uni Delft:

Quantum dots boost cell efficiency; Colorado School of Mines:

April 2011:

Combined polymer PV and solar heating reaches 30% efficiency; Wake Forest Uni:

Graphite nanoparticles boost solar heat transfer 10%; Arizona State Uni:

Thin film gold electrode for organic cells; Warwick Uni:

Quantum coaxial cables realised; Xiamen Uni, China:

Magnetic effect could lead to radical alternative to existing solar cells; Uni of Michigan:

Woven polymer cheaper electrode than indium tin oxide in thin-film cells:

Viruses help assemble efficient solar cell; MIT:

May 2011:

ZnO honeycomb allows thicker amorphous silicon layer; Czech Academy of Sciences:

Record efficiency of 18.7 % for flexible CIGS solar cells on plastics

GE sees PV cheaper than coal and nuclear in 3 to 5 years

June 2011:

Mirrors reduce silicon needed; Japanese start-up:

Inverters reach 99% efficiency:

July 2011:

Cheap plastic solar cells in 5-10 years; Sheffield & Cambridge Unis

Aug 2011

Falling prices of panels lead to switch from solar thermal to PV

Sep 2011:

Cu2S coats CdS nanowires for solar cells; Berkeley Labs:

Linked nanoparticles allow electron flow in quantum dot cells; TU Delft:

Copper nanowire coating for solar cells (and touch screens); Duke Uni:

Carbon nanotubes replace indium for flexible cells; Northwestern Uni:

Oct 2011:

Record voltage achieved for organic cells; Warwick Uni:

Plasmons boost efficiency 30%; ANU:

Optical Cavity Furnace could quarter production cost; US DoE:

Nov 2011:

Trapezoidal grating traps greater range of wavelengths; Northwestern Uni:

Nano-antennas cheaper and more efficient than semiconductors; Tel Aviv University:

Orbiting solar plant feasible; NASA:

Fool's Gold variant for cheap solar cells; Uni of Oregon:

Dec 2011

PV in space, beamed to Earth by laser; International Academy of Astronautics:

QUT study: distributed solar+battery beats more poles and wires 

Jan 2012:

PV on greenhouses turns excess sunlight into power:

CPV, Concentrated photovoltaic, still contending:

Embedded quantum dots let solar cells capture infrared too; SUNY:

Feb 2012:

Hybrid cell gets 2 electrons per photon, promises 44% efficiency; Cambridge Uni:

Tandem polymer cells reach 10.6%; UCLA:

Israeli start-up floats solar farm, literally;

Solar windows reach 170cm x 170cm

March 2012:

Coating cuts reflection from 40% to 1%:

SunTech reaches 20.3% efficiency:

UK company targets domestic PV for African villages:

Cheap mirrors to concentrate onto large scale PV at $1/W fully installed:

3D cells may double efficiency of static arrays:

Plastic films still in the running: 

SunPower's Maxeon cell claimed 24% efficient: 

UK team targets 35c/W for thin film PV on windows:

April 2012

Kyocera to launch integrated domestic PV with battery storage in Japan, summer 2012:

Carbon nanotubes replace platinum in dye-sensitized solar cells; Rice Uni

Harnessing red photon pairs boosts cell to 40% efficient; Sydney Uni

Panels over canal make rural power, cut evaporation

Princeton group mimics leaf surface to boost plastic cell output 47%

May 2012

Zinc lowers cost of dye-sensitized cells

Fraunhofer Institute software eases PV farm planning

Monitoring by satellite gives real-time PV output prediction for grid managers

Fl-Cs-Sn-I combo for solid-state dye-sensitized cell, cheap and 10% efficient

Graphene cells reach 8.6% efficient, triple previous record

June 2012

5 myths about solar PV

GaN nanowires take the strain out of III-nitride cells

Advanced Maths study finds application in amorphous cells

All-carbon cells harness infrared

Domestic tracking system with storage to be available in Germany in Sept

July 2012

Double-sided panels can boost efficiency 50%

New heat-and-power ('PVT') technology from Canada

Cheaper substitutes for silver in metal layer

Field-effect screening (SFPV) allows cheaper semiconductors to be used

Texas alone has potential for 20,000GW solar

Quantum dot cells reach new record of 7% efficiency

Aug 2012

Current installation costs across Australia

Mirror and ball system doubles power output

Sep 2012:

Spinach protein boosts biohybrid cell efficiency

Roving robot can adjust and care for 200 mirrors

Suntech, Hanwha team with UNSW to develop anodised Al contacts

Oct 2012:

"Black" Silicon reaches 18% efficiency, how black can it get?

Quantum dot cells generate extra electrons per photon

Nov 2012:

GaAs layer to boost efficiency for Si type III-V from 30%  to 38%

Stanford develops first all-carbon solar cell

Si cells reach 33.5% efficient

Side-illuminated concentrated solar cells

$60/MWh claimed for Concentrated PV (CPV)

Nanofunnels to collect broader range of wavelengths

German data shows PV prices still dropping persistently at 20% p.a.

Dec 2012:

Cheaper GaAs-based production of organic thin film cells promises $0.45c/W

Metal-plastic nanostructure nearly triples efficiency of organic cell

Insight into fullerenes' success opens door for cheaper alternatives

Peel-and-stick cells

"Balcony" mounted plug&play systems in Germany

Jan 2013:

InP nanowire cell reaches 13.8% efficiency

Concentrated PV reaches 44% efficiency and 950 'suns'

CIGS thin-film beats 20% efficiency

Organic cells can have impurities, so long as they're in smaller patches

Quality check built into production line to save billions

PV+EV is 30 times more efficient use of land than bioethanol

Surface passivisation of black Silicon

Genetic algorithm optimises scattering geometry for organic cells

Cool way to make Si crystals

Vapour deposition could cut wafer fab cost in half

Feb 2013:

28% efficiency claimed for cheap holographic silicon

BC8 silicon can generate two electrons per photon

Microbeads use less silicon per cell

Oz trial for new hybrid PV/thermal technology

'Rectenna' cell theoretically up to 70% efficient

Thin film achieves 10.7% and could be as cheap as a roof tile

Cheaper way to passivate silicon's surface

Self-assembling quantum dots in nanowires

Shell offshoot predicts halved thin film costs by 2017

3D metamaterial waveguide captures colours at different depths

GeS crystal sheets-on-a-line nanostructure

Mar 2013

Project to provide 36 hour forecast of insolation in each 15 minutes

Dual junction cells reach 30.8% efficiency

Nanowire raises theoretical limit of efficiency

Apr 2013

How PV technologies now compare with their potentials

Indian institute proposes solar roof over highways

Black Si reaches 18.7% efficiency

Australian Bearded Dragon pigments shed light on organic dyes

Silver nanoparticles save on silicon

LCOE of 10c/kWh claimed for CPV/thermal parabolic dish

May 2013

579MW plant for California

Metal wrap-through Si hits 18% (poly)-20% (mono) efficiency

UNSW breakthrough makes solar cells cheaper and more efficient

Plasmonic PSCs reach 8.9%

Thin film printing reaches A3 format at CSIRO

Enhanced panels cope with shading and hot spots

June 2013

Perovskite cells reach 15.4% efficiency ahead of expectation

Concentrating triple junction cell reaches 44.4% efficiency

Dual junction cell reaches 31.1% efficiency

250MW plant in Spain for $1.60/W unsubsidised(!)

July 2013

40c/W module cost claimed for thin film CdTe

Dye-sensitised cells reach 15% efficiency

Ionic liquid electrolytes benefit solar cells and batteries  

CPV manufacturer aims for 50% efficiency by 2015

August 2013

Plasmonic nanostructured metals are the new black

Multicrystalline cell reaches 18.3% efficiency

Mimicking plants' vascular systems for self-healing solar cells

Robot tilts 1200 solar panels, one at a time

Concentrated PV module reaches 35.9% efficiency

Disposal cost of some cells may be significant

September 2013

Spray-on Zn3P2 nanoparticles make cheap thin film

Quasi-liquid electrolyte advances dye-sensitised cells

Concentrated PV stackable to 70,000 suns

Oz company develops plasma vapour deposition

Commercial CPV reaches 31.8% efficient

Multi-junction cell reaches 44.7% efficiency

Monocrystalline reaches 20.26% efficient

October 2013

Easily made thin-film reaches 15.5%

Researchers learn how Perovskite captures solar energy

Multicrystalline (c-Si) cells expected to dominate 2014 market

Thin film cells may leach cadmium after disposal

Quasi-random crystals trap broad band of photon frequencies

November 2013

FirstSolar tipping CdTe production costs below 50c/W

Polyimide film plus NaF, KF, lowers CIGS thin film costs

Copper electrodes cut costs for Si PV

High energy photons split to let solar cells capture them

50c/W claimed for concentrated PV array

Nanotextured surface cuts reflection, aids self-cleaning

Which way to face the panels.. N, NW, W?

Dec 2013

Laser doping makes 'black silicon' much more cheaply

 CPV costs down 25% in a year to $4/W

Cheap CZTS cells reach 12.6% efficient

Jan 2014

Perovskite/graphene/titanium reaches 15.6% efficiency

CuInSe thin film utilises blue end of spectrum

Feb 2014

Cheap thin-film "flextrodes" edge closer

Cone-based Fresnel lens for concentrated PV

Recycling rare metals in production process cuts cost of CIGS

Thin film cracks 20% efficiency threshold

Mar 2014

Now Black Silicon passes 20% level

Atomically thin WSe2 diode 

2018 market tipped at 100GW

Continuous flow production cuts thin film costs

April 2014

PV + biofuel dryland farm to optimise water use

CIS thin film at 20.9%

Coating cuts  reflected glare

Crystalline Si reaches 25.6% with heterojunction and back-contact

Perovskite tops 16%, promises more

ZnO layer takes GaAs to 14%

Multilayer cells utilise wide band to get 36.5% efficiency

Bi2Te3 catalyst cheap substitute for Pt in Dye-sensitized cells

May 2014

Stacked CPV  achieves 44% efficiency

Silicon thin film losing the price/performance race against silicon modules

Floating panels to reduce pond evaporation

Black Silicon makes it to production

Advantages of microinverters

"Hyperbolic" metamaterials promise larger electron harvest

200MW single-axis tracking PV farm completed in California

June 2014

Lifecycle carbon footprint of solar panels, by country of origin

Review of leading PV technologies and efficiencies

Inverters with integrated battery get smarter

Electroplated copper replaces increasingly expensive silver electrode

Panels at half the weight

One-step process for "Black Silicon"

Cheaper way to make TiO2 nanoparticles

Plug-and-play solar PV is on the way

20% efficient cells ready for mass production

Optical layer boosts GaInP+GaAs efficiency 16%, 50% boost feasible

Cheap, safe MgCl could replace expensive, toxic CdCl

July 2014

 Weather forecasts to boost value of solar with integrated storage

Lightweight racking reduces rooftop installation costs

Plastic film easier to make than graphene

UAE develops waterless panel cleaning robot

'Singlet fission' could break through presumed efficiency limit

Franco-German  team gets CPV efficiency to 36.7%

Perovskite cell not needing hole-transport layer is more stable

Sub -string optimizer delivers more power from large arrays

Silica nanopyramids keep cells cool

Google offers $1m prize for miniature inverter

Stacking perovskite cell on silicon cell could reach 40% efficiency - UNSW researcher

Aug 2014

Spray-on Perovskite cells

Thin film CdTe hits 21% efficiency

Micro Parallel Inverters combine benefits of string- and micro-inverters

Self-assembling MoSe2+WSe2 2-D semiconductor challenges graphene

PV module reliability scorecard

Silicon Cell production process 100 times faster

Sep 2014

20% achieved for multi-Si cells

Oct 2014

Super smart inverter integrates battery storage

Nov 2014

Plasmonic Au nanoholes capture range of wavelengths

P-type multi c-Si technology gains market share

Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) allows two dyes in one cell

Triple layer metal oxide coating to boost silicon cell output 20%

New Silicon allotrope has narrower band gap

Light solar cloth brings PV to carparks, stadia

Dec 2014:

Multijunction cell sets new efficiency record of 46%

550MW plant built and running in 2 years

Tweaks bring commercial cells above 40% mark

String inverter deployed at utility-scale solar plant

Jan 2015:

Graphene-FeCl3 sandwich rivals ITO (InSnO) for solar panels

15MW Solar PV to provide bulk of power to Saudi desal plant

Feb 2015

Single crystal Perovskite challenges Silicon efficiency

High efficiency CPV that fits on the roof

10.6MW PV farm with battery back-up for WA coppermine

Solar cells from prawn shells

Mar 2015

Floating PV to power wastewater treatment plant, cut algae, stay cool

Ion implantation by particle accelerator promises cheaper, more efficient PV cells

Japan's utilities struggle with growth of solar

DirectWafer technology to halve cost of solar cells

Perovskite cells made at room temperature

Perovskite-Silicon stack yields twice the bang

200kW pilot CSPV plant comes online in Vic

Ozzie firm bankrolled for Turkish perovskite plant

Apr 2015

Tracking the sun broadens daily output - graph

Multi-crystalline Si tops 19%

CIGS efficiency at over 16%

May 2015

Inkjet printing adapted to make cheap kesterite cells

Perovskite cells pass durability test

Applying cathode earlier eases creation of black silicon cell

Biomimic coating is antireflective, water repellent and durable

Black Si tops 22% efficiency

July 2015

Vanadium cell with built-in storage

Graphene-by-sticky tape trick used to make phosphorene

Aug 2015

Perovskite thin-film tops 11%

Panel combines dye-sensitized solar cell with aqueous flow battery

Green antenna harvests blue end of spectrum too

Perovskite cells directly charge Li-ion battery

Sep 2015

Photocell+pyroelectric cell utilise more spectrum

Semi-transparent Perovskite film reaches 12% efficiency

Japanese art form inspires flexible film tracking the sun

Perovskite stability improved - Dyesol

Rackless mounting system could cut rooftop PV cost by 30c/W

Oct 2015

Solar can provide 50% of microgrid without storage - ABB

Ruthenium replaced by iron in dye-sensitized thin film

22.5% efficiency claimed for mass production panels

Reflectors to fill gaps in ground-based solar farms

Nov 2015

"Hot carrier" Perovskites could reach 66% efficiency

Multicrystalline Si reaches 22.15% efficiency

Perovskite+Silicon tandem cell reaches 18%

Nano funnels guide light through wiring to the Silicon

Dec 2015

Cheap Perovskites bring tandem cell to 20.5%, potentially 30%

Thin film holds promise of 50c/W

Coating gathers light from wider angle

Jan 2016

PV balloons above the clouds

CIS thin film promises 30c/W

Cheaper hole transport cuts cost of Perovskite panels

SMA to launch inverter compatible with Tesla Powerwall

Feb 2016

Cheap soda glass as substrate for graphene cell 

Monocrystalline panels reach 22.8%

CdTe cells hit 22% 

4-junction CPV cell at 43.3% 

P-Te lattice fabrication boosts CdTe voltage through 1v barrier

Mar 2016

Lead halide Perovskites' photon recycling suggests yet higher efficiencies

Apr 2016 

Polymer cells reach 11% without resorting to fullerenes

RayGen (Vic) wins more funding for CPV tower+mirror array

Australian cloud-tracking technology helps solar farms

May 2016: UNSW's four-way band split hits 34.5% efficiency [wow! - Ed] 

Aug 2016:
Tungsten-based broadband absorber copes with heat 
The solar panel is the roof - Elon Musk 
"Step Cell" cheaper to make than multijunction, could harvest 40% 

Oct 2016:
A less toxic solvent for Perovskite production 
Semiconducting molecule replaces fullerene for higher voltage organic polymer cell
Inorganic quantum dots improve Perovskite durability, vie for efficiency at 10.8%
Three-string panel copes better with partial shading
Tandem Perovskite cells could reach 30% efficiency
Insights into structure promise more stable Hybrid Perovskites (HOIPs) 

Nov 2016:
Mix of Perovskites approaches 20% average efficiency, 25% peak 
Silicon+Perovskite reaches 24.5%
Layer blue-shifts sunlight, boosts efficiency up to 70% 
Tin could replace lead for cheaper, safer Perovskites
Sequential deposition gives ternary plastic cells unalloyed performance boost

Dec 2016

Fab technique triples output of large area organic film 
"Fly's eye" surface traps more light

Jan 2017

Nano-sculpted semiconductor narrows wavelength band to double energy capture
Efficiency breakthrough claimed for lightweight inverter

Mar 2017: Solar power roofing that is light, thin and flexible

Apr 2017

Window pane uses UV and IR for power, lets cool light through
ANU's stack of silicon+Perovskites reaches 26.4% efficiency
New Perovskite ink scales to commercial widths
Light on Perovskite deposition makes better film
Perovskite-Si tandem cell reaches 25.5%, promising 46c/W

May 2017: Butterfly's colour trick harnesses broad spectrum 
May 2017: Water repellant protects Perovskites
May 2017: 24% achieved with IBC monocrystalline Si 

June 2017: Hybrid 2D/3D structure stabilises Perovskite 

July 2017: Rotating solar farm to track sun on S.Korean reservoir 
July 2017Perovskite film printing technique raises efficiency to 20%
July 2017Hiding electrical contacts uses more of the light
July 2017: Roughened surface saves on expensive antireflective coating 

Aug 2017: Perovskite-Si hybrid hits 23.9% 
Aug 2017: Tandem Si cells reach 32%

Sep 2017: Honeycomb matrix protects fragile Perovskites  
Sep 2017
: Reduced graphene oxide layer extends Perovskite to 1000h, 20% efficiency 

Dec 2017: Organic cation stabilizes Perovskite at 19% efficiency 

Jan 2018: Double layer of quantum dots uses more spectrum 

Feb 2018: SnO2 base layer+water repellant  maintain Perovskite efficiency
Feb 2018: Panels still produce 10-25% on cloudy days
Feb 2018: Titanium-based Perovskite is lead-free

Mar 2018: Thin film lead-halide cation protected from air by ZnO anion 
Mar 2018: Squaraine molecule ups efficiency of non-fullerene organics

Apr 2018: Glass nanobead coating traps 20% more light 
Apr 2018: Mn improves efficiency of relatively stable inorganic Perovskite

June 2018: Perovskite layer on Silicon scores 25.2% 
June 2018: Breakthrough in applying transport layer to Perovskites at scale

July 2018: Fabrication technique boosts Perovskite voltage 5% 
July 2018: Fluorination triples efficiency of cheap polymer cells

Dec 2018: Shape-shifting polymers for panels that track the sun 

Jan 2019: Field test of inkjet-printed Perovskite panel; claim is $80/m2, 10% efficient - 80c/W - Ed
Jan 2019: PV panels can be 96% recycled already

Feb 2019: Tiny space-grade cells under lens array allow 29% efficiency for rooftops  

Apr 2019: Caffeine boosts stability and performance of Perovskite cells 
Apr 2019: Co-evaporation yields inorganic Perovskites without high temperatures

May 2019: Fluoride stabilises Perovskite cell 

June 2019: Self-healing skin stops lead leaking from Perovskite 
June 2019: 2D phosphorene sheets provide hole transfer layer for Perovskite cell

July 2019: HfON layer gets 2 electrons from one green photon 
July 2019: Solar panels benefiting agriculture
July 2019: Nanotubes constraining wavelength of heat emissions could quadruple efficiency 

Aug 2019: Panels a quarter the weight make more roofs suitable 
Aug 2019: Deposition of metal contacts avoids waste, toxic solvents

Sep 2019: 2D TiC layer gets Perovskite cell to 20% 

Oct 2019: Oxy group (alcohol/ether/aldehyde...) bonds C nanotubes to Perovskite 

Nov 2019: Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nontoxic, cheaper and more stable

Dec 2019: See-through silicon cell 

Jan 2020: Thin-film Perovskite cells pass crucial three durability tests
Jan 2020: Thinner silicon wafers promise cheaper panels
Jan 2020: 'Reverse' cell generates power by radiating heat at night

Mar 2020: Adding three halogens stops light degrading Perovskite
Mar 2020: Simpler route to tandem cells achieves 25.7%

Apr 2020: Costly 47% efficient cells viable in concentrated PV 
Apr 2020: Renewed hope for "hot carrier" cells to boost performance by 20%
Apr 2020: Lead-free Perovskite BaZrS3 more stable, less toxic

May 2020: Sweaty PV panels stay cool, boosting output 
May 2020: 500W solar panel comes to market


"Conventional" geothermal energy relies on volcanic activity.  This is used in e.g. NZ and Iceland.  It generates electricity for about 2-4 cents/KWh, significantly cheaper than coal.

Australia's geothermal resource consists of hot rocks deep underground.  The heat comes from gradual radioactive decay in granite, so is constantly renewed (but the temperature will drop if heat is extracted quickly).  An Enhanced Geothermal System, or EGS (previously known as Hot Fractured Rock, or HFR), involves injecting water into these rocks.  The water is recycled, but other water may be used as coolant.  The total potential is many times Australia's demand, though some sites are much cheaper to exploit than others.  This is the only renewable source which is inherently available 24x7.  Other technologies require some kind of storage.

The key cost is the initial drilling; the hot rocks are deeper than most mines.  Estimates of potential capacity and long-term cost vary.  The Australian Geothermal Energy Association says 8-11 cents/kWh, with current policies leading to only 8% of total electricity demand by 2020. 

There is a worry that the injection of water may trigger earthquakes.  In principle, this may only be bringing on earthquakes that would have happened one day in any event, but it remains at least a legal issue.  This may rule out some sites.

There may be some amount of GHGs and other undesirable gases released from underground in the process.

A recent idea is to avoid drilling so deeply by choosing a place where there is a good insulating layer near the surface.  It turns out that brown coal deposits are favorite!

See also Heat-based Generation


Oct 2010: West Virginia hotspot

May 2011: New technique avoids fracking

June 2011: CO2 more efficient than water; Uni of Minnesota:

July 2011: At last, some good news for geothermal prospects in Australia:

Nov 2011: Geothermal planned to support remote WA mines

May 2012: 25MW Utah plant will take US total to 72MW

May 2012: Geothermal as back-up for solar PV

Aug 2012: US could develop 100GW of enhanced geothermal in 50 years

Dec 2012: Laser drilling proposed

Jan 2013: Naples looks to Mt Vesuvius

Jan 2013: Artificial reservoirs could cut costs 50%

Apr 2013: 1MWe Habanero, SA, plant commissioned

Aug 2013: Geelong geothermal in doubt after ARENA funding denied

Sep 2013: $88.8m written off Cooper Basin asset

Oct 2013: Vic govt pulls out of Geelong project

May 2014: Indonesia starts on world's largest geothermal plant

June 2014: Iceland looks to export power to UK

June 2014: Missouri Uni switches from coal to geothermal

June 2014: Iberian peninsula could be 100% geothermal

Aug 2014: Poor prospect for geothermal in Oz

Apr 2015: Satellite map to suggest sites

June 2015: Geothermal in the Paris suburbs

Aug 2015: Perceived risk makes geothermal hard to fund in 3rd World

Oct 2015: EU group plans 2km drill in N. Italy

Aug 2016: Cooper Basin site abandoned as unviable

Sep 2016: Sweden trials geothermal+solar PV hybrid 

Apr 2017: Iceland to drill for magma 

Jun 2018: The supercritical promise of magma power 


Biomass may be existing crop waste or purpose grown.

If crop waste, the energy density is low, and the main cost is gathering it from a broad area.  Traditionally, this has led to small scale combustion, which in turn results in incomplete burning and smogs (which have a powerful greenhouse effect). A better option is pelletisation, reducing the cost of transporting to a centralised furnace and allowing it to be stockpiled.

If purpose grown, collection is still something of an issue, plus it may displace food crops.

Either way, it is unlikely to provide more than about 10% of world demand ever.  It can provide a useful backup heat source for solar thermal.


Jan 2011: Improved roasting method of production; Uni of Leeds:

May 2011: By-products of whisky distillation power homes:

Apr 2012Forestry biomass will make matters worse

July 2012: Microbial fuel cell generates electricity from organic waste

Feb 2014: Cool biomass to electricity with solar catalyst

July 2018: Health harm and deforestation downsides of wood pellets 

See also Biofuel


The designs for collecting wave power are more varied than for any other energy source.  Several years of experiments are needed to select the best.  

Current installations are achieving 15-20 cents/kWh, but this is expected to fall to 5-7 cents.  Some estimates claim as low as 2-3 cents!

In Australia, there may be limited sites producing reliable energy and close to urban centres.  Even so, it has been claimed that it could supply 35% of Australia's current demand.

August 2010: Wave energy hotspots around Australia

April 2011: New device captures energy from all six movements

July 2011: German utility pulls out of world's largest wave energy scheme in Scotland

Aug 2011: Yet more designs for harvesting wave power, but still 3 times cost of wind

July 2012: Wave prediction can double power harvested

Aug 2013: Japanese wind & wave hybrid

Apr 2014: Oceanlinx misses deadline, files for bankruptcy

Nov 2014: Carnegie's first 240kW CETO unit online in Perth 

Nov 2014: Siemens exits marine power sector

Jan 2015: Integrating wave energy into grid easier than for wind

Feb 2015: Carnegie project feeds into WA grid

June 2015: Carnegie earns $1.5m milestone payment

Sep 2015: Bombora trial starts on Swan River

Sep 2015: 45kW trial to start off Bunbury, WA

Dec 2015: Testing starts on bioWAVE at Port Fairy

Mar 2016: Wave farm installation starts at Bunbury, WA 

Jan 2017: Wave power just too expensive - UK tech institute 



Current installations are achieving 10-12 cents/kWh, but this is expected to fall to 4-6 cents.  Given the high capital cost, it may surprise that the unit cost is expected to drop so.  This may be because the land used is not considered of commercial value.

The necessary landscaping impacts wildlife and may cause GHG emissions as with hydro.

In Australia, there are few suitable sites.


European Marine Energy Centre

September 2010:

March 2011: Estuaries could generate electricity from fresh/salt boundary; Stanford:

Apr 2012: ... a study of its potential: 

July 2012: First commercial tidal plant in US

Oct 2012: UK Tidal potential put at 153GW

Jan 2013: Severn Barrage proposal claimed cheaper than wind

Aug 2013: Underwater carbon fibre kite to harness low speed flow

Dec 2014: Orkney tidal generator reaches 1GWh mark

Dec 2014: Japan to test underwater 'flying' turbines

Jan 2015: Work starts on 400MW Scottish tidal stream plant

Mar 2015: Tidal lagoon project could power every Welsh household

Feb 2016: 100MW Northern Ireland plant progresses 

Sep 2016: Scotland boasts world's first grid-connected Tidal Array, plans 500kW 

May 2018: 1GW tidal planned for Normandy 


Hydro comes in three flavours: run of river, single reservoir, or double reservoir.  Double reservoir (a.k.a. pumped hydro) can draw power from the grid when demand is low to pump water from the lower reservoir to the upper one.

There may be significant GHG emissions from a reservoir.  According to the World Commission on Dams report, where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 W/m2 of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant.

The best sites produce very cheap electricity (about half the price of coal), but Australia already exploits most viable sites.


Oct 2010: Cost-effective design for small scale hydro; Technische Universität München:

Aug 2012: Varying dam levels generate significant methane emissions

Nov 2016: Methane emissions from hydro dams underestimated and unaccounted 

Natural Gas (CCGT, OCGT)

CCGT stands for Combined Cycle Gas Turbine.  This is the most efficient gas-based power generation to date.  It is suitable for baseload generation, so competes with coal-fired and nuclear.

OCGT is Open Cycle.  This is less efficient but can provide 'peaking' power, needed to cover peaks in demand over supply.  That makes its competitors pumped hydro, CST+ (solar thermal with storage) and geothermal.

While natural gas combustion has only 50-60% of the CO2 emissions per unit of energy as coal, it is a more expensive fuel.  There are also significant question marks over the total GHG footprint, since methane leaks are inevitable.

Until recently, the known reserves would only power humanity for 50 years at current demand.  Vast new fields have been discovered.  It is hard to judge whether this is good news or bad.  On the one hand, it creates a relatively easy way to reduce emissions significantly over the next five to ten years.  On the other, building the new gas-fired power stations diverts efforts from renewables, locking us into continuing emissions for an extra ten to twenty years.

See also Heat-based Generation

Jan 2011: IEA doubles estimate of reserves

April 2011: Methane emissions from fracking shale for gas worse than coal over 20 years; Cornell Uni:

May 2011: Fracking can damage your health:

May 2011: Methane levels 17 times higher in water wells near hydrofracking sites

May 2011: Is it the drilling, the fracking, or the extraction that's the problem?

May 2011: Bush era EPA official calls for fresh scrutiny

July 2011: Rapid response gas turbine could help renewables on grid

Aug 2011: Informative article on coal seam gas and fracking

Sep 2011: Switching to CSG from coal: no benefit for 40 years

Jan 2012: Fracking risks exaggerated, say BGS geologists

Feb 2012: Fracking of shale didn't contaminate groudwater; Canadian report:

Aug 2012: Improved catalyst for burning methane

Mar 2014: More earthquakes from fracking

Apr 2014: Fugitive emissions 1000 times claimed

July 2014: Peer-reviewed study puts US fracking's fugitive emissions at 2-4% (so no better than coal)

Oct 2014: US fracking output projections wildly overstated - report

Oct 2014: Lax US regs allow benzene in fracking compounds

Jan 2015: Infrared sensing cuts cost of spotting methane leaks

Aug 2015: 1000 US gas peaking plants can't do the job

Oct 2016: Methane increase mostly from agriculture and feedbacks 

July 2018: US 2.3% fugitive methane emissions make gas as bad as coal 


 Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

CHP systems replace conventional heating systems (water, space heating), usually in large establishments such as hospitals and factories.  Rather than merely turn the power source, be it coal, gas or oil, into the desired heat, it uses some of that heat to generate electricity, just as in a fossil-fuel power station.  This is very efficient because nothing is wasted; unlike a power station, the heat left over is useful.  (See Heat-based Generation.)

The efficiency gain is possible because the temperature required for the hot water or hot air is much lower than the combustion temperature of the fuel.  For example, if you were to generate 10 units of heat, but turn 4 of them into electricity, you could then use that electricity to drive a heat pump, bringing in maybe 20 units of heat from the outside air.  So the net heating you achieve is 26 units instead of 10.

Sep 2013: Advance in waste heat recovery to boost efficiency 5-10%

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS, or "Clean coal/gas")

In addition to the CO2 produced in combustion, some CO2 and other undesirable gases are released during mining.  Capture reduces the carbon footprint 80-90%.  The captured CO2 is stored in geological formations. 

Despite the billions invested in trials, it shows no sign of being competitive with the best renewables, whether applied to new coal plant or retrofitted to existing plant.

One interesting idea is to supplement the coal feedstock with, say, 15% biofuel.  Then it is only necessary to capture 85% of the CO2 produced in order for the process as a whole to have zero net emissions.

Even if the storage is safe for a thousand years, would we be leaving posterity a legacy they'd prefer to be without?  The rationale is that the CO2 doesn't just sit there.  Over time, it is absorbed into and reacts with the minerals, rendering it quite stable (until millennia later it reaches the tectonic plate boundary and is subducted).  How long this takes depends on the chemistry of the formation.

An appropriate market-based test of viability would centre on the insurance: is it still commercial if having to fund adequate insurance on the open market against all future leaks and other untoward consequences?  Goverment-enacted liability caps will constitute a subsidy of unknown value, and send a clear signal that the technology is not to be trusted.

More justifiable is the use of CCS where renewables don't help: cement production and metallurgical coal.

See also Heat-based Generation

April 2010: Report says it cannot work.

May 2010: Tim Flannery withdraws support

June 2010: Iceland could capture the CO2 chemically in rock

July 2010: Trap the CO2 in bacteria

Sep 2010: Poor prospects in Europe

Dec 2010: Stanford researcher doubts stability of underground storage

Feb 2011: Farmer says CO2 injected under his land as part of oil extraction is leaking.

Mar 2011: Pressure build-up not an issue in suitable formations

June 2011: Nano-foam could seal leaks

July 2011American Electric Power cans $600m CCS project

Oct 2011: UK Longannet project collapes, Vedsted project blocked by Swedish parliament, German Brandenburg project in doubt; but three going ahead in US

Nov 2011: Million tonne CCS trial starts in Illinois

Nov 2011: The Economist's online debate

Dec 2011: $2bn pilot project blocked in Germany

Dec 2011: Warrnambool test claimed a success

Jan 2012: Cheap polymer efficient at CO2 capture

Mar 2012: Ionic liquids adapted to large scale capture

Mar 2012: CSIRO finds large scale capture can catch 90%, burning 40% more fuel

Apr 2012: Still no serious prospect, yet politicians remain starry eyed

May 2012: Norway opens $1b carbon capture test facility

May 2012: Ceramic membrane removes N2 before combustion, making CO2 easier to isolate

May 2012: Lawrence Livermore: Zinc catalyst for capture efficient and robust

June 2012: Metal organic honeycomb, a new class of porous material

June 2012: US National Research Council warns of risk of 'quakes

July 2012: US study finds toxins leaching down from mountaintop mining

Aug 2012: Oxy-fuel test in Queensland

Dec 2012: EU CCS contest finds no winner

Jan 2013: Welsh pilot plant captures first tonne

Feb 2013: Nickel nanoparticle catalyst (as used by sea urchins)  but where is the calcium to come from? - ed.

Feb 2013: Light sensitive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) capture/release CO2

Feb 2013: Rust catalyst makes exhaust pure CO2, aiding capture

Feb 2013: Alberta cancels funds for CO2-to-fuel project

Apr 2013: Hopes fade for Illinois project

July 2013: Success claimed for CSIRO pilot using amines - challenge is to make it economic

Aug 2013: Uni of Newcastle scheme sequesters CO2 in pavers

Sep 2013: Study finds CCS uneconomical compared with renewables 
Sep 2013: Gas field to become CO2 store

Sep 2013: Norway scraps CCS plans

Oct 2013: Breakthrough claimed for two new coal-fired CCS plant

Dec 2013: Fracking magnesium-rich rocks to store CO2

Jan 2014: CO2 sequestration while boosting geothermal output
Jan 2014Cost overruns continue at Mississippi plant

Feb 2014: Mississippi utility says CCS a long way from ready 
Feb 2014World first gas with CCS announced in UK

Mar 2014: Pilot plant for SW WA

May 2014: Saskatchewan to have world's first commercial scale coal plant capturing 90% CO2

May 2014Mississippi 'showcase' plant a year behind schedule, $1.6bn in cost overruns

June 2014: Coal industry should fund and demonstrate CCS, or it won't happen - IEA

Aug 2014: CCS does not lower environmental impact of coal power - study

Jan 2015: Powdered asphalt is a cheap capture material

Jan 2015: Most of buried CO2 could leak back out - MIT study

Feb 2015: Most promising US project collapses

Mar 2015: Nitrate coat boosts CO2 absorption by MgO
Mar 2015: Pollution down 85% at Qld pilot plant

May 2015: Natural CO2 store shows saline aquifers can hold it for a million years 
May 2015: Metal diamines capture CO2 like plants do
May 2015: Coal+CCS is double the cost of wind power - Greenpeace

June 2015: Adelaide plant to capture CO2, then let it go again 
June 2015: Ion-exchange resin captures and releases CO2 efficiently 

July 2015: New zeolites trap CO2

Aug 2015: Munmorah CCS trial abandoned for lack of funding

Dec 2015: Citi dismisses coal industry's hopes for better efficiency and CCS

Mar 2016: Saskatchewan trial "a disaster" 
July 2016: natural CO2 reservoirs last 100,000 years plus
Oct 2016: New solvent claimed to halve capture cost to $40/t

Jan 2017: How The Oz spins the failed technology into success 
Jan 2017: Two trials starting in US ...
Jan 2017: ... but their power will cost more than solar and still emit 10%

Jun 2017: $10bn later, flagship US Kemper project abandoned  

Dec 2017: Cost of carbon capture sees $240m Norwegian gas plant abandoned 

Aug 2018: Scheme to capture in Magnesite infeasible

Dec 2018: UK looks to carbon capture of industrial emissions 

May 2019: Benelux ports to sequester 10mt CO2 in emptied North Sea gasfields 

Oct 2019: Carbon capture from smokestacks can never be effective - Stanford study 

Dec 2019: Zeolites in cellulose/gelatine foam capture CO2 efficiently
Dec 2019: 13% of CO2 emissions could be stored underground - study


Capture with Algae, etc. 

One fossil fuel power station option is to capture carbon organically, using algae say, which can then be used as biofuel or cattle cake. 

There are effectively two carbon cycles on earth: on a decades scale it cycles between air, ocean, soil, and biota.  Over millennia, it can be bound into minerals as rocks weather and as organic matter becomes buried instead of decaying, and released later by tectonics.  Our key problem is that burning coal and oil, and manufacturing cement, rapidly move carbon back to the short cycle.  Capturing it in algae does not take it back out of the short cycle unless you then bury it.  And if you do that, you may as well run the power station on the algae and leave the coal in the ground.

So algal capture is hardly a solution.  If used as cattle cake it may reemerge as methane, and that could be worse than not having captured it at all.

Of course, if the algae were to capture CO2 directly from the air and not depend on a power station then that would be excellent, but there's no suggestion that would be viable.

See also Biofuels.

November 2010: Baking Soda Boosts Algal Oil Production; Montana SU:

March 2011:  Protein converts fatty acids to ketones; Uni of Minnesota:

April 2011: Doubt cast on potential of biofuel from algae; Kansas State Uni:

May 2011: Toxin pumps boost production; US DoE:

May 2011:

June 2013: Algal biofuel demo plant planned for Whyalla

June 2018: Overheating cyanobacteria boosts succinate production from CO2 

 Conventional Coal

It is essential that we stop using this ASAP.  Coal has been storing excess carbon safely for millions of years.  Once we release it into circulation it will be hard to take it back out.  The other environmental and health costs of mining and burning coal, borne by the taxpayer, are huge.

See also Heat-based Generation

Feb 2011: Taxpayers bear 2/3 of real cost of coal; US study:

May 2011:  Lung damage pathway from carbon nanoparticles identified:

Oct 2011:  Yale economists put real cost coal at 2 to six times market price:

Nov 2011Yale economists find coal costliest power source

Aug 2013: Coalmine approvals should consider cumulative impact

Mar 2016: Nearly half planned new coal-fired power to be in areas already short of water 



While no GHGs are emitted during operation of the generator, there is a large footprint from the vast quantities of concrete needed for construction of the plant, plus the ongoing impact of mining and transporting the ore.

Current nuclear power station production technology generates large quantities of radioactive waste that must be stored for centuries, some for millennia.  At the same time, anticipated reserves would only meet the world's energy demand for 200 years.

The true cost of nuclear power remains an open question.   Every nuclear-powered country on the planet caps the liability; what does that amount to as a subsidy?  France keeps the details secret. Germany's cap is much larger than most, and the only European one that doesn't equate to exoneration.  The US has the Price-Anderson Act.  In 1992, their Energy Information Administration valued the effective subsidy to the nuclear power industry as a whole at US$3.05 billion annually.

Fast breeder reactors, still only experimental, could reuse existing waste, produce much less waste in future, employ sources other than uranium, and so extend the resource to thousands of years.  A key obstacle is that material could be diverted for weapons.

For military-political reasons, thorium, in the form of a molten salt (LFTR), has been neglected.  India has vast reserves. It is much safer than conventional nuclear power in many ways, and has little waste disposal headache.  But LFTR is also highly corrosive.  In late 1960s, an experimental plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ran for four years, by which time the container was much degraded.

Dec 2011: Thoughts on Thorium by a Prof of Nuclear Physics at ANU

The dream has for decades been fusion, the power source of the sun.  This 'burns' water; a heavy isotope of Hydrogen, Deuterium, can be extracted from water and fused with the even heavier isotope Tritium to produce heavier elements, some of the mass turning into energy.  It promises almost limitless power for very little radioactive waste.  It is also far safer than a fission reaction, a catastrophe like Chernobyl being impossible. 

Over sixty years of international effort, it was always '30 years away' from becoming reality.  The two leading designs are the Tokamak, which contains a sun-like plasma in a magnetic 'bottle', and laser inertial confinement fusion (Laser ICF).  Recent breakthroughs in the laser systems are promising, but technical challenges remain.
A major issue is the source of Tritium.  Currently this comes from conventional nuclear powered stations.

A third option is hybrid fission-fusion.  As well as enjoying the power output from the fusion component, this confers many of the advantages of the fast breeder process on the fission component.

An alternative to Deuterium-Tritium fusion is Hydrogen-Boron (aka Proton-Boron).  This produces no radioactive waste, but requires temperatures of nearly 3,000,000,000°C.

Dec 2017: Laser advances bring prospect of working Hydrogen-Boron fusion.

See also Heat-based Generation


December 2010: A report concludes that nuclear continues to be a viable power source but the current fuel cycle is not sustainable:

January 2011: China claims breakthrough in fuel reprocessing:

March 2011: EU climate commissioner "Wind now cheaper than nuclear"

Feb 2011: Scientists calculate US nuclear subsidy at more than 7c/kWh

April 2011: light ions for fast ignition; US Naval Research Lab

May 2011: Governments have to pick up bill major accidents

May 2011: China in quest for fusion power

May 2011: US NRC finds fault with new Westinghouse reactor design

July 2011: Chinese Fast Reactor goes on-grid:

Sep 2011: New fusion plant using "stellarator" design to be built in Germany:

Jan 2012: German report: full insurance would add from 20c/kWh to $3.40/kWh to cost of nuclear:

Mar 2012: Simulation says Magnetised Inertial Fusion will generate useful output; Sandia National Labs:

Jun 2012: Key process developed in building tokamak core; Uni of Tennessee:

July 2012: US slashes funding for fusion research

Aug 2012: GE chief says nuclear too expensive

Aug 2012: New adsorbents for extracting uranium from seawater

Aug 2012: UK's Plutonium stockpile to fuel new 'fast' reactors

Nov 2012: EDF wants 22c/kWh for nuclear power in UK

Nov 2012: UK and US agree: wind power cheaper than nuclear

Dec 2012: UK's nuclear cleanups to cost $160b

Apr 2013: Former regulator says all US nuclear plant unsafe

Nov 2013: Glass of nuclear waste and blast furnace slag to cut volume 90%

Feb 2014: Fusion edges closer to "ignition" at US NIF

Apr 2014: Dozens of US reactors would not meet revised earthquake standard

May 2014: Molten salt reactor would reuse 'spent' fuel, extracting far more energy

May 2014Small  Modular Reactors (SMR) still won't beat renewables

July 2014: Nuclear industry continues global decline

Nov 2014: Trend to smaller reactors in innovative fusion designs

Dec 2014: IEA sees nuclear as uncompetitive

Jan 2015: Austrian legal challenge to subsidies for Hinkley C

Feb 2015: Construction starts on $20bn experimental fusion reactor in France

Mar 2015: Fusion: Breakthrough claimed in controlling heat bursts

May 2015: Lithium grains boost temperature and pressure in fusion plasma

June 2015: Fusion: Plasmoids could obviate need for solenoids in tokamaks

June 2015: Serious safety flaws in latest French reactors

July 2015: French fusion plans fallen 5 years behind

Aug 2015: Magnet technology brings fusion closer

Sep 2015: Myth of cheap nuclear persists in face of evidence

Nov 2015: Finland approves world's first permanent disposal site

but a hot month for fusion...

High temperature superconductors aid fusion

Boom-bust cycle of electric current in Tokamaks explained

New plasma state "Super H mode" offers higher pressures

Icy pellets cool unwanted plasma hotspots

Specialised supercomputer cuts simulation time to an eighth

Dec 2015

German team confines 100,000,000oC He plasma for 0.1s

Solar+storage would undercut UK's new nuclear

Jan 2016

X-rays track energy flow in fusion
Atomic scale turbulence in fusion explains heat loss 

Apr 2016 Extracting Uranium from seawater
Aug 2016 New facility to refine materials and design of spherical tokamak

Oct 2016: Japan gives up on fast breeder (Gen IV) technology 
Oct 2016: MIT sets new record for fusion plasma pressure
Oct 2016: Long-legged exhausts on fusion reactor handle 10 times the power

Nov 2016: Rising cost puts Vietnam off nuclear 

Dec 2016: $30bn Iter fusion reactor targets 500MW by 2025
Dec 2016: Molten salt and liquid fission fuel touted as safer

Jan 2017: Stellarators and Tokamaks - fusion tech explainer 

Aug 2017: Two new N Carolina reactor builds abandoned

Nov 2017: Chinese and Bill Gates to cooperate on Gen IV "Travelling Wave" 
Nov 2017: Slowed neutrons allow transmutation to degrade radioactive waste

Jan 2018: Small thorium reactor would consume weapons-grade plutonium  

Mar 2018: "High temperature" superconductor brings fusion within view 

May 2018: Cracks in UK plant threaten £120m repair bill 

Aug 2018: Warming waters hobble Nordic nuclear power stations   

Nov 2018: Chinese tokamak reaches 100,000,000°C 

May 2019: Small modular reactors proposed as back-up for renewables 

July 2019: Injecting Beryllium pellets should stabilise plasma 

Jan 2020: Doubt cast on waste storage technology  

Heat-based Generation

Several technologies involve the conversion of energy to heat first and then to electricity.  The second step requires a lower temperature medium for the heat to flow to, usually water or air, and involves an inherent inefficiency.  The higher the temperature difference the greater the efficiency.  Conventional coal-fired stations manage about 45%, while a car engine is only 20%.  This is why electric vehicles can reduce emissions even if the electricity comes from coal.

Where the heat comes from burning a gas (hydrocarbons), the burning fuel can drive a turbine or piston engine directly.  This is "internal" combustion, and can employ the Brayton Cycle.  Otherwise the heat is used to expand a gas, typically steam.  In coal-fired power stations and solar thermal plants the (supercritical) Rankine Cycle is used.

In some situations, e.g. CHP, the spent heat is useful, raising the effective efficiency.

March 2011: Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle could raise efficiency of gas-fired to 50%:

June 2011: Device gleans energy from low-level heat waste; Oregon State Uni:

May 2017: Supercritical CO2 with Brayton Cycle boosts efficiency 

Hybrid Generation

Methods of generation can be combined to produce a better overall result. 

A cheap source of heat at a moderate temperature can preheat the working fluid, which is then boosted to a higher, more useful temperature by a more expensive energy source.

A variable source, such as wind or solar PV, can be combined with a dispatchable source source, such as solar thermal with heat storage, or reservoir-based hydro, to provide a supply matched to demand.

Dec 2014: Italian generator teams solar PV with geothermal and geothermal with biomass.

Mar 2016: Nevada's 33MW geo+26MW PV+2MW solar thermal


As well as technologies for generating electricity, it is important to look at how we could distribute it across the grid more efficiently.  The present system uses alternating current (AC), even though direct current (DC) is more efficient.  High voltage DC (HVDC) loses only 3% per 1000km.  For long-distance transmission, very high voltage levels are needed for efficiency.  These must be stepped down to much lower voltages for domestic use.  To transform voltage so, the current needs to be AC.  When the grid was built, converting from DC to AC was inefficient, so the distribution itself was made AC.

Nowadays there are better ways to convert DC to AC, so a DC distribution network would save energy.  And given a more efficient distribution network, there are more options for siting the power generation.

Jul 2017: Solid State transformers ease smart feed into grid

The cost of maintaining the distribution network is a major component of the retail electricity price.  In 2011 major upgrades dramatically raised electricity prices.  The upgrades were claimed needed because of:

  • Aging infrastructure

State-owned retailers had kept prices low for political reasons and siphoned profits into general revenue.  So no fund has been built up for future upgrades.

  • Rising peak demand

The network has always been built to meet peak demand, which had risen inexorably.  It has been calculated that for each $1 a household spends on installing air-conditioning, an extra $3 worth of distribution network is needed.

Home rooftop solar PV panels has reduced peak demand from the grid, which had been mid-afternoon in summer.  The new peak, 5pm-7pm, is lower but stands in sharper contrast to average demand.

The solution to this would be demand management.  Ultimately it may require smart metering.  The vision is that the end-user price varies according to current total demand, and household appliances adjust in response. 


May 2011: Winds cool power lines,  boosting capacity

June 2011: Climate spectator: Our costly obsession with air-con

June 2011:

Jan 2012: Apple files patents for powering devices with hydrogen fuel cells

Feb 2012: Microgrids seen as more reliable and more friendly to renewables

May 2012Visions of a smart grid future

June 2012: Pacific Northwest utilities to start smartgrid trial

Nov 2012: Major advance claimed in HVDC circuit breakers

Dec 2012: $130m HVDC link for Finland

Jan 2013: Undersea cable proposed between Iceland and UK

Oct 2014: Greenhouses under power lines use spare land and power

Dec 2014: UK trial of smart grid

Jan 2015: Carbon nanoball insulator permits 25% higher transmission voltage

Mar 2016: γ'-Fe4N magnet for smaller, cheaper transformers

June 2018: DC transmission may be key to renewables growth in Aus 

Feb 2019: Modelling shows hybrid AC-DC network could save 5% 

Energy Storage

A cheap and efficient way to store lots of energy would help greatly in both ensuring baseload and meeting peak demands. 

For stationary energy storage, dedicated conventional electrical batteries do not come close.

May 2015: Maglev 'train' in vacuum tube ($140/kWh)

Sep 2015: Flywheel storage for remote sites developed in Darwin

Aug 2016: Superfast flywheel is permanently levitated 

Dec 2016: French trial of 45000 rpm carbon fibre drum 

The cost of storage has three aspects:

  • The cost per unit of energy storable at one time ($/kWh).  Typically in 100s. 
  • The cost per unit of maximum power deliverable when needed ($/kW).  Typically in 1000s.
  • How much energy is lost in process.

For example, suppose you have a windfarm rated at 10MW but you only rely on it for 3MW.  Say you want to cover the possibility of 48 hours of below 3MW output, averaging only 1MW. So you will need 96MWh of storage, with a peak delivery capability of 3MW.  If it costs $9.6m then that's $100/kWh and $3200/W.

If the basic cost of power from the windfarm was $2/W of rating, it cost $20m to build.  The storage therefore adds 50% to the cost.

Note: Claimed storage costs can be confusing.  Sometimes the cost is quoted in terms of stored energy at one instant (typically $100-$1000/kWh for non-heat) and recovery percentage, sometimes in terms of all the energy stored and recovered over the lifetime of the equipment (in the cents/kWh range).  The first format is the one the manufacturer can quote with certainty; the second involves assumptions regarding usage pattern and generation cost.

The heat-storage options are only applicable where the energy is already converted to heat at some point, e.g. solar thermal.

For more information see 

Nov 2011: Breakthrough cathode using copper hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles: cheap, and robust.

Mar 2012: Cheap cathode from pulp mill waste; Linköping Uni:

Apr 2012: Uni of Minnesota licenses its isothermal CAES technology

Jun 2012: Copper-graphene nano-coax capacitor

Jun 2012: Isentropic's Pumped Heat (Gravel) system targets $8/kWh, 75% recovery

Jun 2012: Aqueous sodium ion battery targets $200/kWh, 85% recovery

Jul 2012: Electric Flux Capacitor for grid scale storage

Jul 2012: Microbes to store electrical energy as methane

Aug 2012: BiS additive boosts Fe-air battery efficiency

Aug 2012: Combined solar, wind and storage unit from German Institute

Aug 2012: Ireland plans cliff-top pumped hydro with seawater

Oct 2012: Liquefied air energy storage

Oct 2012: Management system claimed to double battery effectiveness

Nov 2012: Compressed air with water for heat recovery claims 70% efficiency

Nov 2012: EV batteries provide domestic storage when past useful life for vehicles

Dec 2012: US DoE earmarks $120m for improving EV batteries

Dec 2012: Carbon nanotube forest on graphene makes supercapacitor

Dec 2012: H2 as energy store still excites interest

Jan 2013

Belgium plans artificial North Sea island for pumped hydro

36MW storage for Texas wind farm

Costs could halve in ten years

Feb 2013

Si nanoparticles replace graphite anode for cheap, fast Li-ion battery

Mar 2013

Disused iron ore mine to provide 2GWh of pumped hydro

Lifetime C-footprint and energy assessments for storage technologies  

Pike Research expects grid storage to grow 56GW by 2022

Redox flow batteries achieve 25kW

ARENA grants CSIRO $480k to test battery technology

Apr 2013:

Gravity train to be trialled

Clifftop pumped saltwater hydro proposed in WA

Open air plasma ring

ZnFe Redox Flow batteries

Stanford's Li-polysulphide flow battery eliminates membrane

Organic-Molybdenum catalyst for H2 production

Undersea pumped hydro for offshore wind using hollow concrete spheres

May 2013

Domestic PV storage set to take off?

Compressed air in porous rocks

NaS grid storage pilot in California

Boron-Graphene matrix soaks up Lithium

CoO and NiFeOH catalysts for cheaper, more efficient, higher density Zn-Air battery

June 2013

Graphene strips boost Li-ion anodes

German wind farm stores spare energy as Hydrogen

July 2013

TiO2 makes cheap capacitor

Aug 2013

Graphene supercapacitor reaches charge density of 60Wh/l

Carbon nanotubes support Si in Li-ion battery

Study sheds light on graphene's properties

Laminar flow avoids need for membrane in Br-H battery

Sep 2013

Review of grid storage technology

Zn-air claimed to reach twice the energy of Li-ion at a third the cost

Steam engine resurrected as energy storage

Isothermal CAES for greater efficiency

MXenes (transition metal carbides) assist Li-ion batteries

Oct 2013 

Gravity storage using disused mineshafts

UK report judges grid scale LAES will be 60% efficient, $200/kWh

Wood biochar for cheaper supercapacitors

Integrated battery+inverter for PV uses PCM to handle heat

Silicon supercapacitors could provide integrated storage for PV cells

Nov 2013

Nanowires built by virus offer more surface

Eos Zn-air battery (10000 cycles, $160/kWh, 75% recovery) going into production

Stanford comparison of utility scale storage options

Dec 2013

Hitachi to enter grid-storage market

US DoE releases report on grid storage

Alternatives to battery storage: Chemical, pumped hydro, CAES

CAES as a Solar Bank

Tesla offers batteries for peak levelling in commercial buildings

Organic flow batteries much cheaper than metal-based

Metal hydride "proton flow" battery would be lighter than Li-ion

Jan 2014: Roundup of grid storage technologies and companies

Feb 2014

MoS2 in graphene sandwich provides stable cathode for Na-ion

Japan installs used EV batteries at 10MW solar farm

Mar 2014: Oz potential for pumped hydro may have been underestimated

Apr 2014:

New ceramics for storing hydrogen

NYC Transit installs multi-hour multi-MW Va flow battery

Edison inverter integrates peak load shaving battery

A Va flow battery able to use cheaper sources

May 2014:

Graphene Supercapacitor rivals Li battery energy density

Lithium Boron crystal for storing hydrogen

June 2014

Graphite anode developed suitable for Na-ion

Manufacturer offers 15 year guarantee on Li-ion

"Cloud" storage to complement domestic solar

Quinones provide cheap organic flow battery handling 5000 recharge cycles

July 2014

Economics of Pumped Hydro - Uni of Melbourne Energy Inst

Organic redox flow battery from quinones

Mini pumped hydro at $1/W

Claimed advantages of Vanadium flow over Li-ion (advert)

$15m Va flow demo for Washington State

Simple process converts sand to 3D silicon sponge for Li-ion  anode

Carbon nanosphere honeycomb protects Lithium anode

Aug 2014

Adding caesium to sodium-β battery drops operating temperature, prolongs life

Sharp launches smart battery system for large buildings

$100/kWh, soon, claimed for Li-ion

Oct 2014

Germany adds 30MW Li-ion

Va flow battery at $300/kWh

Nov 2014

 MoS2 nano-sandwich for H2 production and as supercapacitor

Toronto to trial 750kW underwater CAES

Aqueous Hybrid Ion battery's energy density lifted 40%

Trial of 2MW Lithium Titanate battery on UK grid

Dec 2014

Smart storage turns PV households into peak generators

6MW/10MWh battery substation near London to leverage renewables

Oz' largest grid-connected battery to support UoQ solar farm

Jan 2015

Liquid Metal battery developer touts Australia as key market and manufacturing base

Kevlar vest stops Lithium sprouting hairs

Used car batteries recycled for grid storage

MnO2 nanosheets stabilise Li-S cathode 

Feb 2015

Imergy launches 250kW, 1MWh , Va-flow grid storage

Iron/carbon catalyst can replace platinum for electrochemical energy storage

Germany needs more pumped hydro - study

Zn Polyiodide doubles energy density of redox flow batteries

Mar 2015

Leading German manufacturer to quadruple production

Battery-backed WA solar plant powers on through cyclone

Apr 2015

Efficient conducting polymer for organic  batteries

Non-metal catalyst for Zn-air battery

Ceramic filler boosts polymer conductivity 1000-fold

Aqueous hybrid battery environmentally friendly "cradle to cradle"

Grid storage projects for N. Ireland, Netherlands

May 2015

Tesla lithium offering beats lead acid on price, ~17c/kWh LCOE

Flexible sulphide film triples energy density of solid state Lithium

Old open cut mines as pumped hydro

Home battery technology review

High conductivity activated carbon boosts Li-S battery life

Pilot project teams batteries with flywheel

June 2015:

Introducing... the wooden battery

Quebec to test 1.2MW LiFePO4

Va-redox+solar for Vanadium mine

Aug 2015: Li-I solar flow battery beats conventional Li-I

Sep 2015: Na-ion a step closer with cathode of volcanic mineral

Oct 2015: Polymers and saline for cheap, safe redox-flow battery

Nov 2015:

Mg-FeS2 battery competitive with Li-ion

Compressed underwater air balloons

Underground thermal storage could make US 100% renewables

Redflow predicts its Bromine flow batteries to add only 20c/kWh 

Dec 2015

Li-ion flow battery could hold 10 times the charge

Na-ion developed to laptop standard 18650 format

'Hydricity' stores energy as H2

Ontario installing 5MWx4h Va-redox storage

Deal signed for 1GWh Li-ion batteries for grid storage

Grid storage batteries more affordable than thought in California

Jan 2016

Chilean village to get 24x7 power from solar+pumped hydro using seawater

Feb 2016

Li battery ingredient harmful to key soil bacterium 
Pollen makes efficient Li-ion anode
Redflow claims 20-30c/kWh LCOE for domestic ZnBr flow battery
Reversible hydrogen fuel cell as battery
Perovskite solar cell that stores energy directly
"AC" domestic battery

Mar 2016

Supercapacitor charged from temperature difference 
Calcium a candidate for liquid metal battery

June 2016: Salt bath cure for electrodes makes Li-ion safer, more durable

Aug 2016: Old oil wells for upside-down pumped hydro 
Aug 2016: Zn-ion intercalation cheaper than lithium for grid storage

Sep 2016: Marine CAES using hollow concrete spheres
Sep 2016: Storing energy as pressure in gas pipes
Sep 2016: Germany's excess wind power to be stored in Norwegian hydro
Sep 2016: Pumped hydro to use old Qld gold mine

Oct 2016: Integrated PV with Redox Flow Battery 
Oct 2016: Infamous PAH makes cheap battery
Oct 2016: Small-scale pumped hydro - French/Belgian study

Nov 2016: Cheap DIY batteries from scrap metal 
Nov 2016: 13.6MW Wind farm with pumped hydro for Germany

Dec 2016: SA company claims $70/kWh for silicon latent heat 
Dec 2016: Storage need for 100% renewables grid much less than though - CSIRO

Feb 2017: Urea+Aluminium+Graphite = cheap, safe battery 
Feb 2017: Silicon fusion provides efficient storage as latent heat
Feb 2017: Organometallic flow battery is non-toxic, cheap and durable 

Mar 2017: Sodium anode+glass electrolyte = cheap, durable, safe, efficient 
Mar 2017: Pumped hydro storage would add only $28/MWh - ANU study
Mar 2017:
Tests complete on submerged hollow sphere system

Apr 2017: Molten Silicon thermal storage pilot for SA 

Jun 2017: Soluble ferrocene flow battery non-toxic, safe, 1000s of full cycles
Jun 2017: Quinones make anodes safer, more durable cheaply

Jul 2017: Storage as temperature difference between hot salt and cold water 

Aug 2017: Thousands of pumped hydro opportunities on Eastern seaboard - ANU study
Aug 2017:
Syd Uni team finds cheap recharge catalysts for Zn-air
Aug 2017: Compressed air storage claimed as half the cost of batteries

Feb 2018: New hope for Redox Flow batteries with more stable metal oxide cluster 

Mar 2018: Carbon nanotubes resurrect hopes for Bromine flow battery 

July 2018: Molten salt makes metal-oxide batteries a challenger for grid storage 
July 2018: Sodium+Potassium with ceramic membrane for high density flow battery

Dec 2018: US NREL to spend $4m on hot gravel storage study

Jan 2019: Cheaper Li-ion set to squeeze out pumped hydro applications
Jan 2019: CAES could store 2 months UK demand in rocks under North Sea
Jan 2019: BNEF video explains promise and challenge of hydrogen economy

Mar 2019: Hot rocks offer low-cost thermal storage - but low efficiency? - Ed 

May 2019: Polymer extends life of Potassium-Oxygen (K-O) battery 

July 2019: Organic chelate doubles voltage of flow battery 

Aug 2019: Aqueous MnO2|Zn battery reaches 2.5V, challenging Li-ion

Sep 2019: Anthraquinone cathode doubles energy density of Aluminium battery 
Sep 2019: MOF layer holds polysulphides in place in LiS battery

Oct 2019: UK trial of 50MWx5h liquid air cryobattery ...
Oct 2019: ... as another tries gravity: 12,000t weights down an 800m mineshaft
Oct 2019: Puff pastry inspires polypropylene supercapacitor

Nov 2019: Cheaper membrane for alkaline battery chemistries  
Nov 2019: Hunt is on for enzyme generating H efficiently

Jan 2020: Demand exceeds expectation for Tesla's 3MWh 'Megapack'  

Feb 2020: BN nanosheets protect membrane in zinc flow battery 

Apr 2020: $130/kWh claimed for iron sulphate/organic acid flow battery 
Apr 2020: Ionic liquids increase capacity and safety
Apr 2020: Water-in-salt electrolytes are cheap, non-toxic
Apr 2020: Twisted diamond nanothreads are high energy density, low risk

May 2020: Trial of 1MWx150h aqueous air-sulphur flow battery 

EV2G, Electric Vehicle to Grid

EVs plugged into the grid whenever possible can be charged up when other demand is low and feed back into the grid when demand is high.  To be effective in practice, this may require charging points at places of work, which will complicate the accounting.  Even so, trials are underway.

Sep 2011

July 2015: NREL finds reuse of old car Li-ion batteries for grid storage viable

Dec 2015: Nissan LEAF batteries to be reused by Eaton
Feb 2016: 50kW x 1 hour storage on sale in UK from July
Mar 2016: German experiment on user acceptance 
May 2017: The extra cycles harm the battery 

June 2017: Trial of recycled Renault EV batteries for home storage 

Oct 2017: Smart charger manages car<->grid flow 

Jan 2018: Durable membrane resurrects cheap liquid sodium battery tech 

May 2018: WA company claims 20% storage boost with its graphene anode

Jan 2019: EV2G, the hurdles and the hope 

Transport energy storage must also be lightweight.  Petrol has 50 times the energy / kg as the best batteries






Oct 2016: Methane emissions from fossil fuels 60% worse than thought 


The special consideration for transport is portability.

Aug 2013: Chart of carbon intensities of transport modes

April 2014: Comparison of transport footprints


Glossing over walking and cycling, clearly to be encouraged for their health benefits as well as being carbon-neutral and cheap, for land transport we have:

Air transport is tougher.  Batteries being heavy, hydrocarbons are the only feasible technology today for commercial aircraft.  But single- and two-seater electric aircraft do exist:

Even if batteries become much lighter, that may only permit propeller planes. 

As with carbon-based power stations, the hidden cost of poor air quality is huge. 

Feb 2011: Dirty air triggers heart attacks; Hasselt Uni, Belgium:

May 2011: Bio-derived jet fuel possible; CSIRO:

June 2011: KLM to fly on recycled cooking oil

Dec 2011: Removing sulphur from jet fuel won't have a downside for GW

July 2012: Powering flight by laser from ground

Dec 2012: Nonstop round-the-world solar-powered flight?

Dec 2012: BA to build aviation biofuel plant

Feb 2013: NASA designs plane that uses half the fuel

Feb 2013: Russia earmarks $21m for solar-powered flight research

Aug 2013: Airline cut emissions 18% in 8 years

Aug 2013: Chart of carbon intensities of transport modes

Apr 2014: C-footprint comparison of car types

May 2014: Airbus electric plane in maiden flight

June 2014: Flight path changes could curb contrails

Aug 2014Jet fuel from tobacco

Oct 2014: Jet fuel from waste cooking oil

Dec 2014: Aviation industry to cut emissions 50% from 2005 to 2050

Dec 2014: 787 flies on 15% 'green diesel'

Jan 2015: Hybrid plane uses 30% less fuel

Mar 2015: Chinese airline's success with fuel from old cooking oil

Mar 2015: Mid air refuelling could save 23% of fuel on long hauls

June 2015: Abu Dhabi plans aviation fuel and food from seawater and sunlight  

July 2015: UA to start waste-based eco-fuel on commercial flights

Sep 2015: South Africa develops jet fuel from tobacco

Feb 2016: easyJet to trial fuel cells for regenerative braking and taxiing 

Mar 2016: Doubt cast on prospects of low-emissions flight

July 2016: Solar Impulse flies round the world on solar power

Sep 2016: Some Eucalypts have suitable oils 

Feb 2017: Liquid Hydrogen proposed 

Nov 2017: The good oil: 1500°C solar thermal turns H2O+ CO2 into syngas for kero 
Nov 2017: Airbus, Siemens, RR developing hybrid electric engine

Oct 2018: EasyJet to test 9 passenger electric plane with 1000km range in 2019 

Nov 2018: (Toy) electric plane with no moving parts! 

Jan 2019: Gold Coast start-up's lightweight electric motors for small planes 
Jan 2019: Test flight of Boeing electric air taxi 

May 2019: German electric taxi takes to the air 

Aug 2019: Hydrogen fuel cell 20-seater E-plane to take off in California

Feb 2020: 2000ft change in altitude of 2% of flights could cut aircraft harm 59% 

May 2020: Jet engine using electricity to create plasma from air 


Oct 2011: Solar-powered cargo airships

June 2012: Cargo ship to run on wind and gas 

Sep 2013: Aerofoil deck to cut drag on cargo ships 

May 2014: Swedish electric ferry recharges in 10 minutes

June 2014: Wind power could displace 50% fuel on smaller cargo vessels

Dec 2014: Diesel-electric ships save one third of fuel

Mar 2015: Marine propulsion gains 25% efficiency 

Mar 2017: Rotor sail uses wind to save 10% fuel 

Feb 2018: Japanese company to equip cargo ships with solar sails 

Jun 2018Moves to cut marine emissions may resurrect commercial sailing

May 2019: Speed limit on cargo ships a cheap way to cut emissions 

Apr 2020: MW-scale Hydrogen fuel cells for ocean-going vessels 

Petrol and Diesel Engines

The internal combustion engine is only about 20% efficient at turning the chemical energy into forward motion.  In addition to CO2, it generates nitrogen oxides, harmful to health and also GHGs.  As the readily available oil runs out, sources such as deep water reserves, tar sands, and oil from coal become economically viable, increasing the rate of environmental damage.

April 2011:  Laser ignition improves efficiency, reduces smog; Japan National Inst of Natural Sci:

Nov 2011: US proposes to double auto fuel economy by 2025

Mar 2012: Electricity to petrol; UCLA:

Jan 2013: Air pollution killed 3.2m in 2010.

Aug 2013: Low temperature combustion for cleaner diesel engines 

Aug 2013: Cameras instead of wing mirrors greatly improve mpg

Nov 2014: Lightweight 2-stroke engine

Nov 2014: Power-to-liquids technology promises renewable transport fuel

Apr 2015: First batch of power-to-liquid Diesel from green power, 70% efficient

May 2015: Hybrid engines save 15%

Jun 2015: Automatic idle-stop technology 

Jan 2017: Pollution concerns for unrecyclable plastic-to-petrol

Feb 2017: Gold nanoclusters convert sunlight to methane and methanol 

Mar 2018: Carbon nanotube tech raises hopes of ethanol from atmospheric CO2 

July 2019: Palladium clusters boost Indium oxide catalyst in methanol production 

Dec 2019: Capturing CO2 from truck exhaust for recycling as fuel 

Electric Vehicles

Four technologies involve some electrification.


Even if the electricity is produced from fossil fuels, electric vehicles have a similar or lower carbon footprint than petrol and diesel vehicles.  An internal combustion engine only achieves about 20%.  Taking into account the energy used in producing petrol in the first place, that drops to 17%.  Power stations convert fuel to electricity with an efficiency of up to 40%.  Some is lost in the transmission of the electricity, but it still comes out ahead.

One problem with electric cars is that you might not hear them coming.  This is being addressed.

A key problem has been the batteries, both their weight and their life expectancies.  Lithium ion batteries and their derivatives have been a great advance, but still expensive.

June 2010: carbon nanotubes in lithium batteries; MIT:

June 2010: EU agrees standard for plugs and sockets for car recharging:

Oct 2010: Silicon boosts capacity of Li-ion; Rice Uni.:

Nov 2010: Toyota EV To Go Over 100 Km On Single Charge

Nov 2010: GE To Buy 25,000 Electric Cars

Nov 2010: Report says new energy storage technologies crucial; American Physical Society's Panel on Public Affairs:

Dec 2010: Lithium-ion battery to store 2.2MWh: 

Dec 2010: Paris launches self-service electric car hire:

Jan 2011: Li-ion battery with "nanoscoops" charges 40 times faster; Rensselaer Polytechnic:

Feb 2011: Nanosheets promise supercapacitors; Trinity Dublin & Uni of Oxford:

Feb 2011: SnC anode with Li-ion cathode achieves long life, broad temperature range and 170Wh/kg; Uni of Rome:

Feb 2011: Microspheres in the anode heal cracks, prevent fires in Li-ion batteries; Uni of Illinois:

March 2011: HCl improves capacity and temperature range of Va-redox batteries; US DoE: 

March 2011: 3D nanostructure speeds charge/discharge 100x; Uni of Illinois:

April 2011: Nanowires make refuelling as fast as for petrol; Colorado State:

May 2011: Activated Graphene; US DoE:

May 2011: France introduces electric garbage trucks

May 2011: Online auction to optimise recharging; Uni of So'ton:

May 2011: Vehicle-to-grid balancing could earn electric vehicle fleets $1000 a year per vehicle; UK National Grid study:

May 2011: Japanese electric car goes 300km on single charge

May 2011: Israeli company plans battery swap network

May 2011: US study: what consumers will pay for improvements

June 2011: Whole-of-life assessment of carbon footprint - conventional, EV and hybrid

June 2011: Capacity and cycle lifetime of Na-ion rechargeables increased; US DoE:

June 2011:  "Semi-solid flow" cells promise to halve size, cut price, extend range and speed recharge; MIT:

June 2011: Airbag anchored underwater stores for a few cents/kWh 

July 2011: Solar heat stored in carbon nanotubes; MIT:

July 2011: Graphene-tin nanocomposite boosts Li battery; Berkeley Lab: 

Sep 2011: Li-ion batteries charge 5 times faster with TiO2 ; Oak Ridge

Sep 2011: Li-ion more efficient with anode binder from kelp; Georgia Inst of Tech.

Oct 2011: Fluoride-ion (F-ion) battery increases storage 

Nov 2011: Silicon-graphene sandwich to charge Li-ion batteries ten times as much, ten times as fast ; Northwestern Uni 

Nov 2011: Recharge on the move from coils in the road

Dec 2011: Battery-switching centre opens in Guangzhou

Jan 2012: Li-air battery life breakthrough promises 800km range:

Feb 2012: Electric trucks save money; MIT:

April 2012: The Copenhagen Wheel converts any bicycle to electric with regenerative coasting

May 2012: LA to create eHighway: overhead power for electric trucks

Jul 2012: Phase-change coolant extends battery life

Jul 2012: Interior Permanent Magnet traction motor boosts power and efficiency, lowers cost

Oct 2012: Portable thin-film solar battery charger

Oct 2012: Fast charging coupler standard agreed

Oct 2012: Portable mains battery charger

Oct 2012: UK club rents EVs to businesses at $8/hour. 

Jan 2013: PV+EV is 30 times more efficient use of land than bioethanol  

Jan 2013: Sn-C nanocomposite anode for fast charging Li-ion , on market in 2-3 years

Jan 2013: Na/Li-ion battery for buses   

Feb 2013: Italian company claims 1000km range, 10 minute charge time (!!)

Mar 2013: Theory may help prevent Li-ion battery degradation

Mar 2013: US online shopping deliveries by e-bike

Mar 2013: EVs beat biofuel for efficiency

Apr 2013: 7-fold advance in Li-S battery cycles

Graphene-Si nanoplatelets give Li-ion 4x capacity

Tin nanocrystal anode increases storage in Li-ion  

Apr 2013: Batteries may still reach 80% capacity after 20 years, and find other use beyond that (but they don't like going over 30C)

Apr 2013: Waste sulphur can be used in Li-S

May 2013: Motor serving as charger quarters charging time, cuts cost

May 2013: Qld mfr claims 80% recharge in 30 minutes

June 2013:

Ultracapacitors provide regenerative braking in trains

Solid Li-S with four times density of Li-ion

Durable Li-ion achieves 85% capacity after 10,000 cycles  

Nano-carbon catalyst for batteries and fuel cells avoids precious metals

Si-hydrogel electrodes increase density of Li-ion

Tesla demos 90-second battery swap  

Aug 2013:

Kickstarter project claims 'level 2' fast charging for $100

ConEdison study of impact of EV uptake on grid

In-transit charging for buses in S Korea 

Flow battery targets 380km range 

Sep 2013: Tesla Model S driven 625 km on one charge

Oct 2013: Oz company launches solar-powered tuk tuk

Oct 2013: Scheme to incorporate lightweight batteries into car components  

Nov 2013: Sulphur-graphene oxide (S-GO) may provide 500km battery

Nov 2013: Electric van  does 1300km on one charge

Dec 2013: Results of 2 year EV fleet trial in WA

Dec 2013: Electric bus that recharges en route

Jan 2014Graphene shield extends life of anode in Li-S battery

Feb 2014: US utilities see no difficulty meeting demand from plug-in EVs

Mar 2014:

Tesla "Giga" factory promises cheaper home storage

EV charging peak could be spread by taking turns

Tesla model E planned for 300km range and $35k US price tag

Sb nanocrystal anode doubles charging of Li-ion

May 2014:

Ford's concept of car with PV roof, carport with Fresnel lens

LiBH4 advance promises new generation of solid state batteries

June 2014:

Battery still at 99% usability after  44000 km

Solar-electric road concept

Swap-in Al-air battery as 1500km range extender

Nanotubes boost power, life of Li-ion

Electric bus recharged in 15 seconds

July 2014:

 Australian EV fast charger approved in Europe, heads for US

UNSW team attempt speed record for 500km on single charge

Seven times energy density, faster charge, claimed for cobalt-doped anode

Spongy Silicon beats carbon in Li-ion battery cathode

Aug 2014:

Nanotech pure Li battery could triple charge density

40% lighter EV batteries  

Electric buses v. diesel, gas, on price and emissions - US study

Battery advances, according to Tesla

Tesla's supercharger network expands across Europe, Asia

Oct 2014

Li-ion battery with TiO2 anode charges 70% in 2 minutes, lasts 20 years

Solar+storage+EV charging for Californian apartment complexes

Nov 2014

EVs add to nation's energy security

Production ramps up on EV buses with flywheel and regenerative braking

Conductive clays make mouldable electrodes

Dec 2014

Smart charger uses cheap power

Feb 2015

Newcastle engineers develop electric bus

Workplace charging + demand response

DNA stabilizes Li-S cathode

German gigafactory will make 5GWh batteries per year

Silicon nanofibre anode copes with expansion

2000 Tesla superchargers installed so far (maps)

Mar 2015

Electric vehicles help cities keep cool

Apr 2015

Sulphur-Graphene nanowalls for Li-S cathodes

Al-ion batteries safer, charge faster, last longer, cost less than Li-ion

3D printed graphene aerogels more regular in structure

May 2015

Regenerative suspension may extend range

Cheaper Lithium refinement makes more sources viable

July 2015Bosch plans Li battery at double density, half cost, by 2020

Aug 2015:

Chinese bus recharges in 10 seconds

UK to test wireless electric highway

EU launches $10m effort on Li-S battery development

Nov 2015:

Added LiI and a spongy graphene anode resurrect Li-air prospects - a breakthrough?

Hydrogen traces aid graphene anode in Li-ion

Huawei unveils Li-ion at 10x usual charge rate

Solid Li-S batteries safer, more energy dense

Brisbane company sells fast chargers internationally

Dec 2015:

White graphene (hexagonal BN) could beat black

Solid-state Li-ion handles higher temperatures

Feb 2016:
Na-ion beats Li-ion on cost
Li2TiO3 and LiFePO4 make cheaper electrodes

Mar 2016:
Solar tuk-tuks for India
Al-graphite electrodes half cost, higher density, than Li-ion

Apr 2016:
Used car batteries could provide 1TWh grid storage by 2030

UK company puts $11m into Aussie developer of gel battery

July 2016Nanolithia (Li-oxides) overcome Li-air limitations

Aug 2016:
Fungi scavenge Li, Co from old batteries
BN/BaTiO3 sandwich yields high energy density and efficiency 
Modified Covalent Organic Framework combines energy density with rapid charge 

Sep 2016: Electric bus goes 550km on one charge 
Sep 2016: First solar-powered commercial car, developed in Qld

Oct 2016: Renault Zoe brings 400km range to mainstream market 
Oct 2016: Tri-metal catalyst brings Li-air promise a step closer
Oct 2016: More conductive MOF may replace carbon in supercapacitor
Oct 2016: Diatoms make cheap anode for Li-ion
Oct 2016: A Melbourne driver's experience

Jan 2017: Tesla battery Gigafactory in production 

Feb 2017: Na-ion durability improved 

Mar 2017: Graphene oxide film extends cathode life in Li-S 
Mar 2017: Enzyme mops up free radicals in metal-oxide batteries
Mar 2017: Nanocarbon spaghetti extends metalorganic Perovskite life

Apr 2017: Fern's fractal architecture boosts supercapacitor by factor of 30 - RMIT
Apr 2017:
Qld lab shows its porous film is a lighter and more efficient current collector
Apr 2017: "Lost ice" process casts solid Li battery from ceramic particles

May 2017: Electroplated Li cathode boosts charge/discharge rate 
May 2017: Carbon nanotubes and graphene stop dendrites degrading Li-metal
May 2017: Al-ion safer and cheaper than Li-ion

Jun 2017: Recharging with electrolytes faster, safer 
Jun 2017: Seaweed extract extends life of Li-S
Jun 2017: Fisker claims 600km with 9-minute recharge

Jul 2017: China's 120GWh/y factory to eclipse Tesla's
Jul 2017: Mn helps cheap Na-ion match Li-ion density
Jul 2017: Charging dramatically faster with 2D material electrode

Aug 2017: Nanodiamonds prolong Li-ion life

Oct 2017: Sulphur-air flow battery a fraction the cost of Li
Oct 2017: AlCl with graphite as cathode, unusually
Oct 2017: Asphalt makes Li-ion charge faster, not catch fire

Nov 2017: Car battery recharge rate of 80km/minute claimed 
Nov 2017: Conversion of trucks to hybrid EVs saves 30% fuel

Dec 2017: Solid state Magnesium battery 
Dec 2017: Phosphide/sulphide layer protects metallic Li cathode, tripling range

Feb 2018: NMC cells charge faster than Tesla's NCA cells 
Feb 2018: Supercapacitor promises greater range, 10 minute recharge

Mar 2018: Proton (H+)-Carbon battery competes with Li-ion
Mar 2018: In US EVs are half the emissions of petrol, like-for-like, over life
Mar 2018: A 3D printed EV for $10,000?!

Apr 2018: First recharging road is 2km near Stockholm 

May 2018: EU to mandate warning noise at low speeds 

Jun 2018: Cr and Va stabilise high capacity Li-Mn-O battery 
Jun 2018: Conducting concrete for on-road recharging

Jul 2018: German drivers recharge at 30km/minute with Aussie tech 
Jul 2018: UoQ tech cuts cost and carbon footprint of making Lithium batteries
Jul 2018: Nb-, W- oxides speed recharge of Lithium batteries

Aug 2018: Simple technique cheapest way to recycle Lithium 
Aug 2018: Scottish team claim rapid recharge with high energy density fluid
Aug 2018: Molten salt electrolyte + metal-ox cathode make Li-Air efficient, stable, compact

Oct 2018: Audible warning passes guide dog test 
Oct 2018: Flywheel allows EV recharge in minutes

Nov 2018: Oil film greatly increases idle life of Al-air battery 
Nov 2018: Polymer sponge coating improves Li-ion charge rate, safety and durability
Nov 2018: Flexible supercapacitor of carbon nanotube paper interleaved with BaTiO3

Dec 2018: Organic electrode for Al-ion battery 

Feb 2019: 30+ year life claimed for fast charging Carbon-ion nanotube battery 

Mar 2019: Stable anion complex advances prospects of solid state Li battery 

Apr 2019: Swiss start-up claims Li-ion with four times energy density of best now 
Apr 2019: Hybrid sulphur cathode boosts Li-ion density by 50%
Apr 2019: Salt mix allows old Li cathode to be renewed more cheaply and safely
Apr 2019: Boron nitride film improves life and safety of Li-metal electrolyte

May 2019: Swiss startup claims battery cheaper, safer than Li-ion and triple density

Jun 2019: Organics stabilise sulphur cathode in high density Li-ion battery 
Jun 2019: Dry film electrolyte process faster, safer, cheaper
Jun 2019: EV charging at 250kW in California (190km in 10 minutes)
Jun 2019: Turn on a dime with one motor in each wheel

Nov 2019: Illumination halves charging time 
Nov 20192400km, 90-second swap time claimed for Aluminium-air non-rechargeable
Nov 2019: NiS nanocrystal cathode lets NaS battery operate at room temperature

Apr 2020Nano Ti/Mn particles make cheaper, denser electrode for Li-ion batteries

See also Energy Storage

Hybrid Vehicles

A hybrid attempts to combine the efficiency of an electric car for short journeys with the range of a petrol car when you need it.  The downside is that your efficiency when running on petrol may be even worse than for a conventional car - you still have to carry that load of batteries around.  On the plus side, though, you can get a boost from the battery when accelerating rapidly, e.g. from a standing start.  Getting that bit extra from a petrol engine is particularly inefficient.

Another solution would be a  network of battery-swap stations.  This is more likely to succeed in high population density areas, such as western Europe.  Given the weight of the batteries, swapping them is not so trivial as it may sound.

Nov 2010: UC Riverside; hybrid tugs reduce emissions at California ports:

April 2011: Wave Disk Generator far more efficient than conventional internal combustion, works well in hybrid; Michigan State Uni:

Aug 2013: UNSW unveils solar hybrid

Sep 2013: Toyota Prius targets 4.3L/100km


Plants store energy as oils, sugars and celluloses. 
  • Sugars

The sugars are the most easily digested by both us and microbes, so the ethanol made today is from the edible parts of food crops, such as corn (maize).  This has several rawbacks.  It pushes up food prices internationally and uses such carbon-intensive methods as to neutralise the advantage over fossil fuels.  It only succeeds commercially because of subsidies won by the farmers' lobbies.

June 2010:

Dec 2010: Georgia Inst of Tech.; Modified bacterium speeds ethanol production:

Dec 2010: Uni of Illinois; New yeast strain converts sugars in red seaweed 3 times as fast:

Aug 2011: Rice Uni; Glucose to butanol 10 times faster:

Jan 2012: Berkeley; Breakthrough in using seaweed:

Jun 2012: Cornell; stopping fermentation short of ethanol eases separation from water

Aug 2012: Illinois; copolymer captures butanol, doubling production and cutting costs

Apr 2013: Enzymes from extremophiles release H from xylose

Jun 2013: Artificial photosynthesis with self-assembling DNA

Aug 2015: Artificial photosynthesis within reach - Monash group

Nov 2016: Water-splitting catalyst integrated into solar cell 

Nov 2017: Artificial photosynthesis 64% efficient with cheap NiFeCoP catalyst
Nov 2017: Artificial photosynthesis to make ethylene

Mar 2018: Artificial photosynthesis with diatomic Iridium 

Aug 2019: Stretchy enzyme helps plants photosynthesise 

  • Celluloses

A key part of the technology is microbes that can digest the tougher plant matter, such as lignin (the woody bit), cellulose and hemicellulose. Hemicellulose breakdown product acetic acid is toxic to yeasts.

Jan 2010

May 2010: Gene discovery potential key to cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol

June 2010: North Carolina State University; ozone to break down lignin:

Sep 2010: Genes found that make lignin so hard to break down

Oct 2010: New Enzyme

Oct 2010: Denmark; 2nd gen ready for production:

Nov 2010: University of Illinois; field study on switchgrass and miscanthus:

Nov 2012: Bacterium discovered in garbage

Dec 2012: Expected 20-fold ramp up in 2013

Mar 2013: Cellulosic ethanol tipped to compete with corn-based by 2016

May 2013: Biofuels pioneer gives up, switches support to gas

June 2013: Molecular switch ramps up enzyme production in fungi

June 2013: Structure of enzyme from wood borer decoded

Oct 2013: Super enzyme malkes biofuel from wood in hours

Jan 2014: Hot springs bacterium makes short work of cellulose

Nov 2014: New catalyst cracks sawdust

Oct 2016: Formaldehyde makes 80% of lignin usable 

Nov 2017: Bio-engineered plant skips lignin production 

Feb 2018: Fungal enzymes crack xylans 

June 2018: Surface charge of lignin boosts enzyme activity 

Jan 2019: Gribbles hold key to cracking lignin  

This opens up two approaches
  • Waste from crop plants

Fuel derived from the unusable parts of existing crops is the ideal.  The only downside is the loss to the cropland of the compost it would otherwise have formed.  But traditionally, much would have been burnt anyway, and the nitrogen etc. may still be available as fertiliser after biofuel extraction.

May 2011: Biowaste for aircraft fuel

June 2012: Bagasse from sorghum and the rubber crop guayule

Aug 2012Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion (IH2) scaling up OK

Apr 2014: Corn waste no greener than petrol

Aug 2015: 400L ethanol per tonne grape refuse (marc)

  • Purpose-grown crops

Leading contenders are grasses, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus.

If to be harvested on a worthwhile scale without displacing food crops, they will replace natural vegetation.  This creates a "carbon debt" which it will take some years to recover.

 25th May 2010: Miscanthus; UK Met Office:

November 2010: Economically competitive within a decade; Boston Consulting Group

Feb 2012: Low energy process gets 9 times the yield per acre from miscanthus than from corn, for 16c/l

Jan 2014: Boeing develops fuel from desert plants and saltwater irrigation

Dec 2016: US ethanol mandate has increased emissions 

Jan 2011: New yeast strain consumes both glucose and xylose;  Uni of Illinois, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Uni of California and BP:

Jan 2011: Half the world's fuel could come from biofuels without displacing other crops; Uni of Illinois:

Jan 2011: Agave has promise;

Jan 2011: Microbial genes from cow's rumen analysed; Uni of Illinois:

Feb 2011: Study casts doubt on US target of 30% biofuel by 2030; Uni of Illinois:

Mar 2011: Problem overcome in getting bugs to make butanol; Uni of California:

Mar 2011: Study considers land use emissions from sugarcane ethanol; Karlsruhe Inst of Tech:

Mar 2011: US DoE; microbe makes isobutanol directly from cellulose:

Mar 2011: Lund Uni; Enzymes from soil digest xylose (major component of hemicellulose):

Aug 2011: Bioethanol from kelp:

Sep 2011: How fungi digest cellulose; Uni of  York and others:

Nov 2011: With support, wood-based biofuel could be viable by 2020; Uni Brit Columbia:

Dec 2011:  Butanol from lignocellulose fraction; Aalto Uni:

Dec 2012: Enzyme boosts content of ethanol precursor

July 2013: Gasification makes biofuel under $140/l

Oct 2013: Bacterium found to digest acetic acid

Jan 2014Protic ionic liquids dissolve out the lignin cheaply

Mar 2015: Fungus genes may help yeasts crack cellulose

Feb 2016: Patent app claims cost parity with mineral oils 

Nov 2016: QUT turns old tyres into Diesel 

Apr 2018: Mushroom farm bacterium converts cellulose to butanol 

May 2018: Swedish fuel cell runs on lignin 

Dec 2019: Zeolite catalyst makes light olefins cheaply and efficiently

  • Oils (and animal fats)

Oil from jatropha seeds is used in some countries, but there's generally not enough oil in plants to make it worth extracting as biofuel specifically. 

A great deal of waste vegetable oil (and animal fat) is produced by existing food processing.  These can only provide a small proportion of total demand, but are being used, mostly by the companies that generate the waste.

Bacteria might be engineered to produce oils.

Sep 2010:

Oct 2010:

Jan 2011: Jatropha less robust than claimed:

Mar 2013: KLM to cross Atlantic on waste cooking oil

Apr 2016 Biodiesel from cooking oil and a microwave 

 Aviation needs a particularly high energy to mass ratio, which means hydrocarbons.  Algae may be useful here.  This lowers the carbon footprint but does not yet eliminate it.

 See also Biomass, Algae

Feb 2011: Enzyme mix eliminates detox step; Virginia tech:

Apr 2011: Alumina nano-particles improve biofuel efficiency; National Inst Tech, India:

May 2011: Biofuels can have worse footprint than fossil fuels; MIT:

May 2011: Hydrotreated Renewable Jet fuel nears certification:

July 2012: BP plans two new biofuels by 2014

Aug 2012: MIT: continuous production from superbug

Oct 2012: Nanobowls protect biofuel catalysts

Nov 2013: Hydrogen car offers 600km range, refuel in minutes, but only 30% efficient

May 2014: Catalysts clean up biofuels, removing oxygenated compounds

June 2018: Biomass gasification 

June 2019: Ethanol fuel cell generates electricity efficiently


The hydrogen can be produced from electricity, particularly when there's surplus in the grid.  It could also be produced directly from sunlight, as in photosynthesis.

To replace a given quantity of petrol you only need a third of the hydrogen by weight, but that is vastly more by volume at atmospheric pressure.  So storage is a problem.  It can be pressurised, as with LPG, or stored in a tank containing materials which absorb the hydrogen.

In the vehicle, the hydrogen can be burnt to drive a combustion engine much like that used with petrol, or it can be converted back to electricity in a fuel cell.  The latter is much more efficient but there are major technical challenges still to be overcome.

Advances have been made both in generating the hydrogen (hydrolysis) and in using it in a fuel cell to form electricity, but it remains a very inefficient process overall - about 25% compared with 70% for battery power. 

May 2010: FePt/Pd nanoparticle fuel-cell catalyst; Brown Uni:

June 2010:  Riversimple's open-source hydrogen car:

June 2010: New process for storing and generating hydrogen; Purdue University:

August 2010: New platinum/titanium-oxide/tungsten-oxide catalyst more stable and cheaper; Cornell University:

August 2010: New nickel-borate catalyst 200 times more efficient at hydrolysis; MIT:

August 2010: Lung-like fuel cell needs less platinum; Norwegian Academy of Sciences:

September 2010: metallacarborane could store hydrogen; Rice University:

November 2010: palladium-gold core prolongs and enhances platinum catalyst; US DoE, Brookhaven:

December 2010: a cyanobacterium that produces ten times the hydrogen; Washington University:

February 2011: nanobeads of ammonia-borane hydride; Cella Energy, Didcot, UK:

March 2011:  Nanocomposites for high density H2 storage; Berkeley:

March 2011:  Carbon nanotubes dipped in polymer replace platinum catalyst, last longer; Case Western Reserve:

March 2011: Nanowires of Bulk Metallic Glass boost efficiency; Yale School of Engineering:

April 2011: First macro-scale thin-film solid-oxide fuel cell; Cambridge Uni, Mass.:

April 2011: Amorphous molybdenum sulphide (MoS2) replaces platinum catalyst in H2 production; Ec. Poly. Fed. de Lausanne:

April 2011: Polymer-iron-cobalt catalyst replaces platinum in fuel cell; Los Alamos:

May 2011: MoS2 better when coated on silicon pillars; Stanford:

May 2011: Pipelined H2 refuelling station opens in US

May 2011: Atomic Layer Deposition protects Cu2O semiconductor; EPFL, Lausanne:

May 2011:  ... but how about Birnessite?  Monash:

May 2011: Structure of proteins that transport electrons; Uni of East Anglia:

Aug 2011: Hydrogen from rooftop solar ; Duke Uni:

Aug 2011: Catalyst speeds release from ammonia borane; USC:

Aug 2011: GaN doped with Sb for H2 from sunlight; Kentucky Uni:

Sep 2011: Iron veins help Mg store H; US NIST:

Oct 2011: Cobalt compound speeds hydrolysis by factor of 10; MIT:

Nov 2011: Boron-nitrogen-based liquid-phase storage material; Uni of Oregon:

Dec 2011: Modified photosynthesis produces H2; Penn State Uni:

Jan 2012: RMIT proposes hydrogen for trucks:

Mar 2012: Nanowire forest produces H2 from sunlight:

Mar 2012: Densely storing H2 as formic acid; Brookhaven:

Mar 2012: FePtAu catalyst boosts performance and prolongs life of formic acid fuel cell: Brown Uni:

May 2012: Ni-Mo-N nanosheet catalyst: low cost with high durability and output; Brookhaven National Lab:

Aug 2012: UNSW: Ni-NaBH nanoparticles store H2

Aug 2012: UK's first hydrogen powered train

Aug 2012: Cambridge Uni: Co catalyst for cheap H2 production

Oct 2012: Co-graphene catalyst could replaced Pt in cell

Nov 2012: Nickel and nanocrystals for cheap catalyst

Nov 2012: ANU team clarifies structure of catalyst plants use

Feb 2013: Iron-based catalyst far cheaper for splitting water

Mar 2013: NiFeO thin film catalyst optimised

May 2013: Nanoforest uses sun to split water

May 2013Rust+gold as hydrolysis catalyst

July 2013: Li helps MoS2 catalyse H2 production

July 2013: Co-Rho catalyst for H2 from ethanol

July 2013: Nanoparticle proximity yields 8-fold rise in current for Platinum

July 2013: Simple cell and anode achieves 5% conversion of light energy to H2

Aug 2013: Purple of saltflat bacterium assists catalyst making H2 from sunlight

Aug 2013: Hairy WS2 crystals catalyse H2 in fuel cell

Aug 2013: Metal oxide sunbaked to 1350C splits water

Sep 2013: Carbon catalyst and laser power

Sep 2013: Solar generation efficiency lifted from 4.2% to 5.3%

Nov 2013: Nickel film on Silicon makes cheap water splitter

Jan 2014: Dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis splits water with sunlight

Jan 2014: MoS2 does best when one atom thick

Feb 2014: Artifical leaf helped by relay step used by natural ones

Feb 2014: Cheap catalyst  FexOy+NiO on BiVO4 gets 1.7% efficiency solar to H2

Feb 2014: Polyhedral Pt-Ni nanoframework blitzes 2017 efficiency target

June 2014: Naturally occurring hydrogenase outperforms Pt

July 2014: Exfoliation improves metal oxide catalysts

July 2014Carbon nanotubes catalyse hydrolysis

Mar 2015: Nickel-iron foam cheap and effective at splitting water

Apr 2015: Cheaper H2 from corn stover

Apr 2015: Some automakers still backing H2 over batteries

June 2015: Australia could export clean energy as ammonia

June 2015: Smoother haematite catalyst doubles yield

June 2015: NiFe oxides split water with 82% efficiency

July 2015: Siemens plans 6MW spare-power-to-Hydrogen plant

July 2015: Nitrogen compounds catalyse as well as platinum

Sep 2015: Hot electrons (plasmons) split water efficiently

Jan 2016Virus shell boosts hydrogen producing enzyme 150x

Mar 2016: Nickel-carbon catalyst for hydrolysis made by Qld team

Mar 2016: W-Fe-Co catalyst for hydrolysis robust and efficient 

Aug 2016:
Aerogels eke out expensive catalysts 
Polymer fuel cell copes with greater temperature and humidity ranges 
Amorphous/crystalline Si sandwich boosts electrolysis efficiency, durability

Oct 2016: Graphene + BN nanotubes hold hydrogen
Oct 2016: Copper nanoparticles in cobalt framework split water cheaply

Nov 2016: Sheets of Ketone polymer store hydrogen safely

Dec 2016: Gold nanoparticles catalyse H release from organosilanes 

Feb 2017: Nanoconfinement of H by C matrix boosts efficiency and charge rate of Li3N

May 2017: CSIRO's metal membrane solves purification snag 
May 2017: Nanoalloy greatly reduces platinum need

Jun 2017: MoS2+W interleaved with graphene conductor splits with half the voltage
Jun 2017: Black phosphorus+gold uses full spectrum to split water

Aug 2017: Nanostructured strontium catalyst beats rare earths

Oct 2017: Carbon nitride + black phosphorus, cheap and efficient catalyst 

Nov 2017: Cobalt+Tungsten polyoxometalate as catalyst 

Dec 2017: Floating hydrolyser needs no pump or membrane 
Dec 2017: Cheap, carbon-based electro-catalyst

Jan 2018: Cobalt + carbon nanofibres a hundredth the cost of Platinum fuel cell 

Feb 2018: NiFe nanofoam hydrolysis catalyst 
Feb 2018: Perovskite cathode with stable electrolyte achieve fuel cell sweet spot

Mar 2018: Cheap and efficient NiFeCu catalyst 
Mar 2018: Hydrolysis from sunlight + protein from eggwhite

May 2018: Manganese-hydrogen battery claimed to add only 1c/kWh to energy cost
May 2018: New equation speeds discovery of alternatives to precious metal catalysts

June 2018: 30% H2 can be added to suburban gas with existing domestic burners 

Aug 2018: Transporting H as ammonia opens huge export market 
Aug 2018: Experimental car does 13,000km per kg H2

Oct 2018: Manganese with Nitrogen a cheap catalyst of H cells
Oct 2018: Methane fuel cell that runs at moderate temperatures

Nov 2018: Hydrolysis catalysed by Cobalt and Nickel Oxide, and just a glint of gold 

Jan 2019: Mesoporous Nickel stores more hydrogen 

Mar 2019: Iron and nickel nanoparticles cheap catalysts for hydrolysis 

Apr 2019: Concentrated sunlight -> Hydrogen reaches 17% efficiency 

May 2019: Manganese hydride quadruples hydrogen storage density 

Aug 2019: Nanostructured silver on copper substrate reduces CO2 to methane 
Aug 2019: Efficient hydrogen fuel cells in microorganisms

Oct 2019: CoP nanoparticles a cheap electrolysis catalyst 

May 2020: Haematite mesocrystals boost H output 


Already widely used, but emits 80% as much CO2 as petrol and global reserves are limited.

Direct production of hydrocarbons

Jan 2011: Cerium catalyst + Fischer-Tropsch produces hydrocarbons directly from water, CO2 and sunlight; CalTech:

[Note: As admitted in the article, this suffers from the same snag as using algae: it will need concentrated CO2.  Today that can come from coal-fired power-stations, but that doesn't make for a zero-carbon economy.  Turning the CO2 back into a fuel for transport is just a single recycling.  The transport releases the CO2 into the air.  The overall result is to slow the addition of CO2 to the main cycle, not to halt it.  For road transport, electricity and hydrogen both remain much better options.  The tough one is air transport.]

Oct 2012: UK company creating hydrocarbons from renewable energy and CO2 from the air

Mar 2013: Iceland exporting methanol from geothermal power

Aug 2015: Cost/benefit study justifies open-air algal farms
Feb 2016: Carbon nanotubes+CuO2 catalyst turns CO2+water into CH4
Feb 2016: "Neutral Red" dye boosts CH4 from algae
July 2016: WSe2 catalyst turns sunlight and CO2+water into syngas
Aug 2016: Nano silicon hydride catalyses CO2 to CO

Oct 2016: Organic semiconducting polymer creates cheap alcohols 
Oct 2016: MoSSe/NiSe2 foam boosts hydrolysis catalysis
Oct 2016: Cu+C nanospikes + electricity convert CO2 to ethanol

Mar 2017: Nanographene catalyst uses light to reduce CO2 to CO 

Apr 2017: Titanium with organic fingers uses light to split CO2 

May 2017: Crystal imperfections boost H production by blocking recombination 
May 2017: CO2+sunlight to fuels approaching feasibility in ME
May 2017: Cheap Si, B catalysts for polycarbonation

Jun 2017: CuO/SnO catalyst splits CO2 
Jun 2017: U of Adelaide's MoF catalyst makes methane from H2 and CO2

Jul 2017: Perovskite nanoparticles a cheap catalyst for hydrolysis 

Oct 2017: Efficient copper nanoparticle catalyst 

Jan 2018: Hydrolysis with Ruthenium-doped carbon nitride 

Apr 2018: LaFeO3 photoelectrode splits water in sunlight 

July 2018: Cheap Fe/Ni phosphide catalyst splits water more efficiently 

Dec 2018: Hydrolysis with metal carbides layered using gelatin matches platinum 
Dec 2018: Lung lining mimic avoids energy cost of blowing bubbles

Jan 2019: Membrane from chloroplasts combines hydrolysis steps

May 2019: Graphite layer protects Perovskite during hydrolysis 
May 2019: Monash team claims to have cheap, stable catalyst

Jun 2019: Magnetic field doubles output of catalyst 
Jun 2019: Metal oxide redox makes kerosene from sunlight, water and CO2
Jun 2019: Despite falling costs, Green Hydrogen faces hurdles

Aug 2019: Enzyme makes CdS quantum dot + graphene catalyst efficiently

Oct 2019: Oxyfluoride a more stable photoanode for light hydrolysis 

Dec 2019: UNSW team uses cheap nano-metals catalyst for hydrolysis 

Feb 2020: Japanese team surprised that rust catalyses hydrolysis efficiently 

Regenerative braking

This is a way to save fuel rather than a fuel in itself.  The idea has been around for decades - instead of turning all the kinetic energy of a moving vehicle into heat when you brake, turn some back into fuel.

Proposed schemes include:

July 2012: Regenerative braking for Pennsylvanian trains

Mass Transit

Aug 2010: University of York (2010, August 18). How to reduce UK transport carbon emissions by 76 per cent by 2050.

Oct 2012: Oz high-speed train proposal gets international attention

June 2013: Japanese Maglev reaches 500kph

July 2013: Tube train in a vacuum could reach 6000kph(!)

Aug 2013: Copenhagen helps cyclists use trains

Sep 2013: Japanese Maglev train reaches 500km/h

Sep 2013: German bus with modular batteries and regenerative braking

Sep 2014: London trial of wireless electric bus

Oct 2014: International comparison shows cost of East Coast HSR  overstated by 100%

Nov 2014: UK bus runs on sewage gas

Mar 2015: Trackside solar panels could save UK rail $50m/year

Mar 2015: Another 290km range electric bus

June 2015: Fast overhead charger for electric bus

June 2015: PV roof for Indian Railway coaches  

June 2015: Norway's electric ferry

July 2015October trial for all-electric London bus

July 2015: Russia developing nuclear train

Dec 2015: Hyperloop test track for Las Vegas 

Dec 2015: Beijing buses to recharge in 10-15min, 2-3 times a day

Jan 2016: Regenerative braking for Penna subway 

Feb 2017Netherlands team wins hyperloop contest 

Jul 2017: Hyperloop One test successful in Nevada desert

Jul 2017: NYC-Baltimore Hyperloop tunnel has the nod - Musk tweet

Sep 2017: Hyperloop pod hits 355km/h 

Dec 2017: Putting distributed generation into the third rail 

Oct 2018: Trackless tram challenges light rail 


 Carbon Drawdown

Since there is already more CO2 in the atmosphere than is safe (400+ ppm compared with 350), there is a need to draw CO2 back out.  This can be done by

Feb 2015: Nothing beats good old trees (except young trees)

Jan 2017: Summary of drawdown options 
Jan 2017: Guanidine captures CO2 from ambient air

Apr 2017: Old slag heaps could absorb CO2

Jun 2017: Drones could plant 1bn trees/year 

Jul 2017: Catalyst produces purer CO 

Feb 2018: European scientists rule out drawdown as too expensive/risky 

Mar 2018: Enhanced rock weathering 

Nov 2018: International conference on "Negative Emissions" at Canberra 
Nov 2018: Land management could balance 20% of US emissions

May 2019: Draw down methane first? 

June 2019: Kelp forests more efficient than trees 

Oct 2019: MOF captures CO2 from air 
Oct 2019: Charged plates coated with polyanthraquinone capture CO2 from air

Biochar is another name for charcoal; a fuel that will burn at the higher temperatures needed for some processes than would the biomass from which it was made.  But calling it biochar puts the accent on an alternative use, namely, to sequester carbon.  Some energy is still derived from the charring process, but much less than by burning the biomass completely.  The resulting char is used to remediate soils, greatly improving their retention of water and nutrients, while also removing the carbon from circulation for a period.  How long it stays out of circulation varies greatly (see table here).  Any incentive paid to farmers would need to take that into account.  It in no way removes the need to stop exploiting fossil fuels.

It has been calculated that carried out on a world scale, largely by peasant farmers, this could draw down enough carbon.  Organising it would be a major challenge.

May 2013: Sequestration in soil in no way reduces need to cut fossil fuel emissions

Mar 2015: Biochar pilot plant to use WA mallee scrub

Mar 2018: Soil sequestration of limited value 

Artificial trees and scrubbing towers

These are methods for extracting CO2 from the atmosphere, but still as CO2.  It then has to be sequestered in the same way as with CCS.  This may be cheaper than retrofitting CCS to existing plant because the scrubbers would be sited close to the repository.

May 2011: Direct Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Air Likely Not Viable

Oct 2011: UK Engineers predict technology in 2018

July 2012: Advances in adsorptive materials

May 2013: Easier to extract the CO2 from seawater than from air

Nov 2015: Research project aims to use microalgae

Jun 2017: Swiss firm tries direct air capture 

Jun 2018: Capture for fuel at ~$100-200/tCO2 claimed 

Ocean fertilisation

Phytoplankton are the main photosynthesising organisms in the oceans.  Their abundance is often limited by lack of iron, so the idea is to fertilise the oceans with iron and generate phytoplankton blooms to absorb CO2.  Numerous experiments have been conducted, with varying results; in some cases the sequestration is only temporary.  If it works, it is relatively cheap.  The main concern is the inherent uncertainty in monkeying with ecology.  Experiments continue.

February 2011: UN study says only 1-15% carbon sinks to depths:

March 2011: Phytoplankton only account for 1% of oceanic sequestration anyway; CNRS, France:

September 2011: Natural fertilisation with dust may have triggered glaciation:



The term geo-engineering has been used to cover rather a wide range of proposals. 


  • increase reflectivity ('albedo') in urban areas
Most proposals relate to rooves.  In some places, this can pay for itself in reduced air-conditioning costs.  However, the same savings might be made more cheaply with insulation, so an incentive is needed to encourage the whitening of rooves.

These last five are better described as carbon drawdown


  • block sunlight on the grand scale

E.g. by deliberate release of SO2 (after decades of trying to reduce SO2 emissions!) or by parasols in space.  The SO2 would be pushed into the stratosphere where it will remain for years (at lower levels it rains out in a few days).  This has many downsides:

  • Does nothing to reduce the CO2 burden on the oceans.
  • Plants need light more than they need heat.  A cool planet isn't much use to them if it's also dark. 
  • Light enhances evaporation from oceans beyond the effect of its heat, so shading could lead to droughts.
  • High tech is risky
  • Large carbon footprint in the implementation
  • Would lead to complacency about emissions
  • Unilateral action could lead to international conflict
  • Hard to undo if it goes wrong
This may be already happening accidentally (Science, DOI:10.1126/science.1182274).

Sep 2011: Oz conference on geo-eng:

Sep 2011: UK to trial geo-eng solutions:

Jan 2012: Stratospheric sulphate risky and of limited effectiveness; Uni of Washington:

Mar 2012: Cloud seeding with salt water in Arctic could restore ice cap, protect permafrost, reduce methane emissions:

May 2012: Patent concerns shelve UK Stratospheric Particle Injection experiment

June 2012: Shading sunlight could cut rainfall

July 2012: Update on 2004 study supports ocean Fe fertilisation

Aug 2012: Saltwater fountain to brighten clouds

Sep 2012: Sunshade costed at $5bn/y

Dec 2012: Fertilising Southern Ocean not cost-effective

Jan 2013: Seeding cirrus clouds could cut 0.8C for $20m/y

Apr 2013: Avoiding warming won't prevent all CO2's impacts on climate

Jun 2013: Wetlands stronger carbon sink than forests

Jul 2013: Cloud seeding could cool reef

Oct 2013: IPCC concedes it may be necessary

Nov 2013: Risk of global drought

Dec 2013: Effectiveness of  blocking sunlight questioned

Jan 2014Blocking sunlight would mess with rainfall

Mar 2014: Low methane gut bacteria identified in marsupials

July 2015: 'Seaspray' to whiten clouds

Sept 2015: Dimethyl sulphide would cool a lot, but upset rainfall - MIT study

Oct 2015: Diamond dust safer alternative to sulphates

Nov 2016: UN group finds geoengineering feasible but too risky

Feb 2017: $500bn scheme to refreeze Arctic 

Jul 2017: Seeding could thin the Cirrus blanket 

Jan 2018: Walls to hold back glaciers 

Aug 2018: Blocking sunlight could cause major crop failures 

Nov 2018: Blocking some sun would cost $2-$2.5bn/year 

Feb 2019: Green walls, Sunblock, Drawdown - three technologies being worked on

Mar 2019: Study claims safe to halve warming with aerosol 

May 2019: Artificial cloud could refreeze Arctic 
May 2019: Cambridge, UK, research group to study high tech options


Aerosols already reducing pan evaporation 

Sep 2010:

Nov 2010: UN Moratorium?



Agricultural methane is a major component of the GHGs for which humans are responsible.  Although it naturally converts to CO2 in a few years, while it is methane it is many times as potent as a greenhouse gas.  Averaged over 20 years, carbon atom-for-carbon atom, it's 35 times as potent as CO2.

Jan 2011: Strip tilling reduces nitrous oxide emissions; Uni of Missouri:

March 2011: Biochar reduces GHG nitrous oxide from cattle urine 70%

March 2011: Anaerobic digester cuts methane, produces energy; Unis Southampton & Reading UK:

April 2011: Diets to reduce emissions from livestock; UK Defra:

May 2011: Beer by-product in feed cuts methane emissions; Vic Dept of Primary Industries:

July 2011: Low-methane bacteria in wallaby's gut might work for cattle:

Sep 2011: Rural bioenergy hubs:

Dec 2011: Wine dregs in feed cut methane 20%:

Feb 2012:  Rotational grazing could reduce emissions:

Sep 2012: Fungi could undo carbon capture in soil

Apr 2013: Soil carbon not as stable as thought

Oct 2013: Solar powered irrigation pumps

Jan 2014: Ruminomics: cutting the methane cowbelch

Feb 2014Better livestock diet would cut emissions up to 23%

Mar 2016: CSIRO report on how livestock emissions can be cut 

Apr 2016: Soil loses carbon to atmosphere after clear felling  
May 2016: Harmless additive cuts methane production in ruminants 30%
May 2016: Dwarf Indian cow emits less methane per litre of milk

Oct 2016:
Seaweed feed cuts methane cow burps ...
... as will Danish "supergrass"
Methane increase mostly from agriculture and feedbacks  
Australian device accurately measures soil carbon

Jan 2017: Avoiding N2O production from nitrate breakdown 

Jun 2018: NZ sheep bred to produce 10% less methane 

July 2019: Hydrogen-consuming microbes cut methane output

Oct 2019: A little red seaweed in cows' diet cuts methane dramatically

Apr 2020: US rice farmers try ways to cut methane 

May 2020: Garlic+citrus pill cuts cow burps 

Domestic and Industrial Efficiency


Jan 2011: Current Technology Could Reduce Global Energy Demand by 85%:

Jan 2011: Efficiency could cut world's energy use 70%:

Feb 2011: "Net-zero" house planned in Washington DC:

Nov 2011: DuPont says 40% efficiency savings easy

Dec 2012: 6-star home energy features pay back in 15 years

Feb 2015: FeMoS catalyst drives solar powered nitrogen fixation

Domestic electricity


See section under stationary energy

Mar 2012: New options for minimising bills

Solar Thermoelectric

This differs from photovoltaic in that it does involve a heat stage,  but also differs from solar thermal because the heat is turned straight to electricity instead of being used to push steam through a turbine.

The efficiency is low, but it has the advantages of being combinable with solar hot water systems and of being very cheap.

May 2011: MIT:

Smart Grid

In today's electricity grids supply has to adjust to demand.  This causes massive spikes in generation cost at times of peak demand.  In a "smart grid ", some of the demand adjusts to match supply.  This will be particularly useful for electric cars, allowing them to be charged at cheap rates.

May 2011: US EPRI calculates 4:1 payback over 20 years:

Jul 2017: Domestic device manages voltage, protects appliances, cuts consumption 


Being able to measure what appliances use how much and when can help greatly in getting the best out of PV on your roof and in minimising your bills if you're on time-of-day tariff.

June 2012: Sydney students develop home metering tool

April 2014: Google's vision of the intelligent house

Feb 2017: Smart meter figures out what your devices are using 


Compact fluorescent bulbs are four times as efficient as incandescent and have largely replaced them in Australia.  LEDs promise even more efficiency, greater lifetimes and less issues with toxic components in recycling, but it has been difficult achieving white light and scaling up the power to area lighting.  The best currently available for domestic use are about the same efficiency as compact fluorescents (10%). 

Another technology on the horizon is Electron Stimulated Luminescence (ESL).

April 2011: Progress in understanding what limits usefulness of LEDs

Nov 2011: Intelligent public lighting system saves 70-80%

May 2012: "Breathing" 27W LED lamp achieves 100W incandescent brightness

Nov 2012: More retrofittable LEDs on market

Dec 2012: FIPEL lights, cheaper than LEDs, more efficient than CFL, no buzz

Jan 2013: LEDs set to overtake CFLs

Jan 2013: Firefly trick boosts LED efficiency 55%

Mar 2013: LEDs below $10/bulb

Apr 2013: Philips claims tripled efficiency of white LEDs to 200 lumens/W

Aug 2013: Progress in understanding why LEDs degrade

Oct 2013: LEDs reach equivalent of 60W incandescent

Nov 2013: US NRDC's guide to lightbulbs

Mar 2014: LEDs get cheaper, more reliable

June 2014: 9.5W LED equals 60W incandescent

July 2014: LEDs could cut energy for lighting by 95%

Nov 2014: LED efficiency up 50% in 2 years

Mar 2015: More efficient LED has warm glow, works with standard dimmers

June 2015: 10W (=60W incandescent) LEDs under $5 in US

Aug 2015: IKEA to sell only LED lights

Aug 2015: LEDs with wireless control save 61% street lighting power

July 2018: Quantum dots efficiently turn blue LED white 

Nov 2018: Perovskite-polymers match OLED efficiency at less cost 


Mar 2014: London to extract heat from Thames

June 2014PCMs reduce size of hot water tank needed, cutting losses

June 2015: Branching structure speeds phase change in PCMs

Aug 2016: Gas-fired heat pump doubles as water heater and dehumidifier 

Jan 2017: Caustic soda stores summer heat for winter 

Nov 2019: Concentrated solar thermal reaches 1000°C for industrial processes 

Refrigeration and AC

May 2011: Replacing HFCs in fridge manufacture also saves you energy

June 2011: Using waste heat to cool

Jan 2012: Phase-change materials to provide thermal inertia, precooling for AC

Apr 2012: Solar-powered air-con to cut peak demand

Jun 2012: White roof cuts A/C bill up to 20%

Jun 2012: "Cool blue" pigment reflects 40%

Jun 2012: Smart A/C cuts costs up to 30%

Aug 2012: A/C that switches off when you leave the room

Jan 2013: Smart thermostats save money

Jan 2013: CSIRO spin-off seeks share of $6b commercial buildings efficiency market

Apr 2014: Red LEDs hit 90% efficiency

Mar 2015: US lab targets fridge using 1kWh/day

Mar 2015: Elastocaloric materials promise efficient fridges

Aug 2015: Glass paint cools roof

Oct 2015: Q-Sync: Highly efficient commercial refrigeration

Oct 2016: HFCs are 8% of GHG impact; HFOs may help 
Oct 2016: Prize-winning retrofit improves aircon efficiency

Mar 2017: Solar-powered chiller 

Apr 2017: Newcastle Uni's CLES system generates heat, power, O2 and cooling

Aug 2017: Ice Cub, cold "battery" for air-con, available in Aus 

Oct 2017: Fluid-filled rooftop panels boost aircon efficiency 20% 

Nov 2017: 40% green roofs would keep Seville cool - study 

Oct 2018: Film allows heat to escape while reflecting sunlight  

May 2020: Carbon nanoparticles make climate friendly refrigerant 30% more efficient 


April 2011: Low footprint bricks:

May 2011: Software aids natural cooling:

Nov 2011: Contractor offers makeovers for share of savings:

Dec 2011: Thin film insulation for buildings: 

Jan 2012: Uni of Melbourne report on reflective roofing:

Feb 2012: Cross-laminated timber to replace concrete and steel?

Feb 2012: Neo-classical cement: 60% of the cost and 3% of the CO2

Mar 2012: CERN's high vacuum technology used in solar thermal panels: 

Mar 2012: Let the light in, turn the heat into power:

May 2012: $20m Empire State Building efficiency work will pay back in 5 years

July 2012: Optimising window power

July 2012: Solar heating and cooling

Aug 2012: Solar-powered attic fan

Dec 2012: Eco-cement to sequester CO2, not produce it

Dec 2012: Biocement supports plant growth

Feb 2013: For 10% extra, the façade is the power source

Mar 2013: Adding straw to concrete

May 2013: Fibro retrofit

July 2013: Successful Empire State retrofit model rolls out across US

Aug 2013: Energy efficient windows inspired by plant vascular systems

Aug 2013: Low-cost passive house wins competition in Washington DC

Aug 2013: Smart windows allow you to select light and/or heat

Aug 2013: Virtual Net Metering encourages PV on apartment blocks

Sep 2013: Personal comfort system avoids heating/cooling entire room

Sep 2013: How US DoE building code on draughtiness would save us money

Oct 2013: US NREL to launch efficiency audit App for commercial buildings

Mar 2014: Austral launch world-first carbon neutral bricks

May 2014: Window inserts admit light, block 50% sun's heat

Nov 2014: Rooftop super mirrors save on A/C

May 2015: "Green mix" concrete uses fly ash and shredded drink cans

May 2015: UTS develops super-cool white roof

April 2016: How to put some CO2 back into concrete 

Mar 2017: Bacilli make calcium carbonate bricks  

Apr 2018: Graphene reinforcement halves concrete use 

Nov 2018: Smart film blocks 70% heat entering window when above 32°C 

Dec 2018: CO2 sequestered in concrete 

Apr 2019: Transparent wood - windows that insulate and store heat

Dec 2019: China's bamboo waste to replace steel, concrete and plastics 


May 2012: Lightweight motor enables battery-powered garden tools 

Dec 2012: "Warm mix" asphalt recycles plastic, cuts heat requirement

Jan 2013: Global contest to develop efficient computer screens

Feb 2013: Smart electric motors are more efficient

Mar 2013: Graphene filter for cheaper desalination

May 2013: Carbon-free steelmaking

June 2013: New catalyst for destroying nitrous oxide

Aug 2013: Efficient appliances could halve your emissions and save money

Apr 2014: Control system to optimise domestic PV gen, storage, heat pumps

June 2014: White roads make cool cities

July 2014: Skirt on cooking pan uses gas 40% more efficiently

Mar 2015: Easy way to make catalytic coatings promises cheaper fuel cells

July 2015: Ultrasonic clothes dryer saves energy

Jan 2016: Bioplastics to displace petrochemicals

Apr 2016: Cactus water repellent keeps fuel cell membrane moist

Aug 2016: Chemicals industry could use reverse osmosis instead of heat 

May 2018: Alternative to sacrificial carbon anodes in aluminium smelting 
May 2018: Hydrogen could replace metallurgical coal for steel

Jun 2018: Smart UK classroom a net producer of energy

Jan 2019: Renewable hydrogen for ammonia production 

Feb 2019: Industrial chemistry: Nano-Pd catalyst works better with light

July 2019: 40 platinum atoms ideal particle size for catalyst 

Oct 2019: Artificial leaf produces syngas 

Dec 2019: Rio Tinto plans "green aluminium" by 2024 


Useful Links

Renewable Energy Policy Network for 21st Century